Sunday, February 16, 2020

Batting Biofilms Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Batting Biofilms - Assignment Example If genes which are responsible for the formation of these adhering protein molecules are deleted the bacteria are unable to form biofilms. However, it is now proved that bacteria form biofilms after communicating with each other through signal molecules, for e.g. in P. aeruginosa the relevant signaling molecules are acylated homoserine lactones which each cell produces at a low level, when enough cells assemble the concentration of these compounds increases which in turn trigger the activation of certain genes, the mechanism is known as quorum sensing, which is critical for the formation of biofilms. Since biofilms formed by P. aeruginosa is responsible for causing cystic fibrosis pneumonia, i.e. they turn virulent (disease causing). algC gene is responsible to synthesize alginate, the gelatinous polymer that makes extracellular matrix. Thus, signaling molecules to control the genes that code for virulence. During stage 1 when the bacterial cells move or swim freely and arrange themselves in cluster in order to form a biofilm; Attack strategy is employed that coats the molecules and block or disrupt microbial arrangement or attachment. During stage 2- when the collected cells begin producing a gooey matrix; Attack strategy is employed which coat the surfaces with substances that interfere with the matrix production so that film is not formed. During stage 4- when chemical gradient arise and promote the coexistence of diverse species and metabolic states; Attack strategy is employed which delivers multiple antibiotics or disinfectants to undermine the varied survival strategies of biofilm cells. Microbiologists took a very long time to size up the microbes in the biofilm. Since the establishment of germ theory, in the late 19th century by Robert Koch, bacteria were envisioned as single cells that float or swim through some kind of watery

Monday, February 3, 2020

After the American revolution conflicts between the North and South Essay

After the American revolution conflicts between the North and South - Essay Example The southern states majorly depended on cotton growing as their main source of revenue. There, however, existed a range of factories in the north of which most were agriculture based, as grain processing. The economy of the north was diverse with several other factories, apart from agriculture based. The southern states had slavery as the source of labor in their plantations (Jordan xii). This was among the issues that exacerbated the south with their northern counterparts. While the southern plantation owners embraced slavery, the north had it declared as an odd institution. The north and south had divergent economic interests. This difference possibly triggered the enmity that, among other factors, promoted the civil war. There was a notable difference in the labor forces between the north and south. The north consisted of a majority of skilled workers that made the labor market competitive while the south mainly used semiskilled and manual labor. There were high tariffs in the north, contrary to the south where there were low tariffs. The high tariffs shielded to the industries in the north from competition. The north and south had differences including their locations of land in the continent. While the northern states fall in the northern hemisphere, the southern states have their situation in the southern hemisphere. The demographics of the north and south showed explicit differences. The northern population was higher than the southern given the surge of people in the north, who worked in the factories. The immigration, therefore, escalated the population of the north. Differences over land issues were among the significant causes of the historic civil war. The union states (from the north) wanted their southern counterparts (confederate states) to surrender their large plantations for the building of industries and factories. The southern states, however, were reluctant to give in to such forces. This triggered a land conflict between the north and