Saturday, January 25, 2020

Voice Disorders in Child Communication

Voice Disorders in Child Communication Voice disorders are the most fairly common communication disorder in children.   Voice disorders can be developed throughout the lifespan of an individual.   Currently around 7% to 9% of children develop a voice disorder.   Voice disorders can be characterised by hoarseness, occasional loss of voice, vocal fatigue and unusually low or high pitch. Voice disorders are generally classified as: Vocal abuse Neurogenic disorders Psychogenic disorders Alaryngeal communication They are often associated with: Lots of screaming and yelling; Recurrent infections of the upper airway; Reflux Different subtypes: Vocal Cord Paralysis Vocal Cord Nodules and Polyps Paradoxical Vocal Fold Movement Spasmodic Dysphonia References: Justice, L. (2006). Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction (1st ed., pp. Chp 11.14-23). New Jersey: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall. Voice Fact Sheets. (2016). Retrieved 14 March 2017, from A Speech Pathologists role in working with a child who has a voice disorder is to treat them.   Speech pathologists treat children with a voice disorder through common treatments such as vocal techniques, therapies, and work in conjunction with teachers and Ear, Nose and Throat doctors to help a child produce the best possible speech quality and normal vocal sound production. Assessment of voice disorders: †¢ Voice quality can be screened, (evaluation of vocal characteristics) †¢ A comprehensive assessment is conducted for children suspected of having a voice disorder, using both standardized and nonstandardized measures. †¢ Disorders that relate to the structure and function are physical characteristics that must be diagnosed by a physician (ear nose and throat doctor specialist (ENT)) Reference: BuildnCare Therapy,. (2017). Retrieved from Voice Fact Sheets. (2016). Retrieved 14 March 2017, from The International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) is the best framework to use to understand and asses the impact that a voice disorder has on a childs quality of life.   As it covers all aspects of an individuals life that a voice disorder may impact. By using an internationally recognised model that consists of; à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ± Body Functions and Structures à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ± Activity and Participation à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ± Environmental Factors. à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ± Personal Factors References: 1st day as an english teacher,. (2013). Retrieved from Rebecca is a 9 year old girl who has an outgoing, loud, bubbly personality. Rebecca loves to sing and act and is the lead in both her school choir and drama group.   At a weekly rehearsal with her choir group Rebecca began to experience frequent coughing and clearing of her throat. Her choir teacher suggest that Rebecca should go visit the school speech pathologist.   After her session with the school speech pathologist Rebecca was diagnosed with Vocal Cord Nodules which is benign growths on both her vocal cords. Rebecca is now receiving treatment to correct the behaviour that was causing the problem.   As a result Rebecca can no longer for the time being be the lead in her school choir and drama club and as a result cannot perform in the yearly singing under the moonlight concert. Rebecca now also find it difficult to verbally communicate as she experiences discomfort which has lead to her spending no time with her friends who are all part of the drama or choir group. This has lead to Rebecca feeling lonely and left out as she is unable to effectively participate in her groups.    Body Functions and Structures †¢ Diagnosed with vocal nodules due to vocal abuse †¢ Rough vocal quality Activities and Participation †¢ Unable to perform for longer than 2 minutes without vocal discomfort †¢ Not able to fully participate in choir and drama club †¢ Unable to perform lead role in concert †¢ Reduced ability to talk due to discomfort Environmental and Personal Factors †¢Age:9 †¢School girl singer and actor †¢Talkative and outgoing person References: Australian girls choir,. (2012). Retrieved from

Friday, January 17, 2020

Corrections Trend Evaluation Essay

This paper explains the many trends in the public and institutional criminal justice system. These trends, starting from the past, push the research into the present and future with the implementation of continuing trends and perspective ideations to aid in the progress and advancement of criminal procedures. This paper starts with the history of community and commercial criminal justice and attaches the proceedings to the present-day standing. This paper also shows an idealistic and theoretical analogy of how the criminal justice system may look in the future based on current trends. Past Trends Stories mentioning jails are throughout history even back to biblical times, however, America did not have an official penitentiary until 1790 at which time Philadelphia constructed the Walnut Street Jail. It was during this time that the root word of penitentiary took on its new form. Prisoners in early times were sent with the aim of the punishment in the form of penance, thus with any luck resulting in purity of personal reform. Inmates are kept in single cell units at all-times, even for meals. Recreation was not an option. In the rare event, that an inmate did leave the cell, a mask, or hood is required (Johnson & Dobrzanska, 2005). The goal is to lead a monk style life, thus providing a Bible to all inmates is mandatory, and it is a hope that the offenders would spend their sentences preparing to live law-abiding lives as governed by God’s word, following their release. This type of containment for inmate is known as the separate system. On the flipside of the separate system is the congregate system, and the first notation of its use, is by the Auburn Prison (Johnson & Dobrzanska, 2005). Prisoners still lived a life of confinement while in their cell, but with this system, they coexist with other inmates for work and meals. Although this is a change, inmates never speak a word and many recall the only sound coming from workshops within the prison and the marching of inmates (Johnson & Dobrzanska, 2005). Present Trends Much has changed following the days when inmates donned masks or hoods just to walk down a corridor within prisons walls. Prior to the 1960s, both the public and the courts developed a â€Å"hands off policy† toward the conditions and practices within criminal facilities (Martin, & Katsampes, 2007). The reasoning behind this was a notion that correctional administrators knew how to best control both inmates and correctional facilities. However, during the 1960s and the 1970s, while people outside were rallying for civil rights of different groups of people, inmates were inside prisons rallying for prisoners rights. At this point, the criminal justice system and treatment of inmates take a poignant turn in history. The decision of the courts allowed the trend to move from inmates living a monk style lifestyle to inmates who currently have access to courts, counsel, mail, more choices for reading material and libraries, medical care, food services, recreation, exercise, and due process. Because of this society now, see’s correctional facilities were inmates coexist around other inmates, as well as seeing inmates legally counseling other inmates in their cases as well as appealing and representing themselves in court. We have TV crews going into facilities and providing the public with firsthand accounts of life within the jails. However with the changes come downfalls in the goals for incarceration. No longer is the goal one of penance, it has since changed to a goal of punishment. The focus is holding an offender accountable for illegal acts as well as a means to discourage offenders from committing future criminal acts, and with any luck discourage others in communities from following in the same tracks as current inmates. Because of this trend, the judicial systems as well as correctional facilities have increased to a level of concern. Another unfortunate outcome of the changing of times comes the changing of the importance behind rehabilitation. According to Martin, and Katsampes (2007), rehabilitation, and reintegration rank as secondary goals. Noted, especially for this theory are the jails, as they do not attempt to provide inmates with opportunities for self-help or change to deter future criminal behavior. Luckily, community-based corrections are stepping up to assist in the rehabilitation of offenders. Programs such as community-based centers are offering their assistance in reintegrating inmates back into society. These types of centers operate within a private sector and offer assistance in areas, such as returning to school for finding employment as well as enrolling the participants into classes such as cognitive self-changing classes, parenting classes as well as drug and alcohol programs. Another example of community-based corrections focuses on alleviating the overcrowding issues seen within the correctional facilities. These programs encompass opportunities such as bail supervision programs, community service orders, work-release centers, electronic monitoring, probation, or other alternative measure programs (John Howard Society of Alberta, 1998). Each of these community-based correctional programs poses significant benefits to alleviating the correctional facilities problem with them experiencing just too many inmates. The bail supervision programs release the offender to a member of the community, while that person is awaiting trial. This program not only holds the offender accountable for not screwing up while awaiting trial, it also holds someone else accountable for those people’s actions as well. Many times this takes place in the form of bail or following the release of an offender on recognizance also known as RoR. Community service is another fine example of the serving of punishment. This program allows offenders to give back to the community by means of working within the community. Many times community service takes place at a local store such as the Youth Ranch, other times it will be strictly with the city or county, doing things such as working at the local landfill, or cleaning court offices and other associated buildings. Offenders in this program, report at a scheduled time to the jail and receive their daily work assignment, form that point until the remainder of their day, they work under the supervision of the jail staff. Work release centers offer the opportunity for inmates to leave the facility to fulfill work schedules obtained prior to sentencing. Most inmates must pay a higher fee for this opportunity but can have someone approved by the facility to transport the inmate to and from work, however, the inmates are also subject to random checks by authorities to ensure they are accounted for at all times. Future Trends and Issues As time continues to evolve, the judicial system is bound to encounter the continuation of trends as society is beginning to see in both past and present times. It impossible for one to say what will or will not happen to the future correctional facilities, but through monitoring of the past, one can begin to see a devastating trend form. By removing the rehabilitation aspect and imposing the punishment aspect, the system continues to enable the cycle, thus bringing it to the point it is today. Research suggests that the trends both courts and facilities will face include that of continued prison growth as well as the potential for early release patterns (The Sentencing Project, n.d.). By the courts handing down sentences strictly for a punishment reason, they are enabling the continuation of a growth that already exceeds maximum capacity within the facilities. A suggestion to combat this scenario and alleviate the congestion within the facilities is to take advantage of the community-based programs available for offenders who do not pose a significant threat to themselves, or to society. The punishment aspect of the crime is satisfied by the courts and the chances of rehabilitation are greater in this case than they would be, compared to taking advantage of the smaller programs available while in jail. This scenario plays on with the second possible trend that if offenders are still sent to the correctional facilities, not only will the continuation of over crowdedness still be in place but also eventually something will have to take place to correct it. The something will have to include releasing certain inmates earlier than intended by the courts, thus risking the safety of not only others in society but also the released inmates, and increasing the possibility of recidivism. Conclusion This paper covers many trends in the public and institutional criminal justice system. These trends, starting from the past, push the research into the present and future with the implementation of continuing trends and perspective ideations to aid in the progress and advancement of criminal procedures. The first section of this paper covers the history of the commercial criminal justice and follows it up through the present-day. Finally, the paper details through logic how the criminal justice system may look in the future based on the current trends already set in motion. References John Howard Society of Alberta. (1998). Community Corrections. Retrieved from Johnson, R., Dobrzanska, A., and Palla, S. (2005). The American prison in historical perspective. Retrieved from Martin, M., & Katsampes, P. (2007). Sheriff’s guide to effective jail operations. Retrieved from The Sentencing Project. (n.d.). U.S. prison population: Trends and implications. Retrieved from

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Book Review on Insurgency Terrorism by Bard ONeill

Introduction This is a comprehensive analysis that compares insurgencies and terrorists movements of post Second World War II and in our times. O’Neill begins this book by looking at post world war II insurgencies that have emerged which are related to terrorism and guerilla wars. He analyzes the nature of insurgency, tactics used in these guerilla wars both military and political â€Å"these so called small wars, which can be found on all continents, are often very costly and frequently involve major interest of regional and global powers,†1, and makes us understand both physical and human environment of these organizations and how they have shaped the modern day world. This analysis also makes us understand the role of external support and how it can influence and change the course of wars. Dr.O’Neill makes us understand that insurgency is not a modern day problem but, it has been there before even in Roman times. He says that these insurgencies have jumped from just under two hundred terrorist incidences to over eight hundred terrorist violence that have cost lives of millions of people all this for struggle of power to control interest   of few people. â€Å"Most of these insurgents were the handiwork of insurgents groups seeking to achieve a variety of objectives,†2. Dr.O’Neill makes us make us to draw helpful conclusions that there is great difference between freedom fighting and terrorism. Freedom fighting involves struggle to attain something   while terrorism is a means to get an objective done and concluded at any cost, while also a freedom fighter can also use tactics used by terrorist to achieve their goals also. The driving factor for many insurgencies use to determine their strategies in fighting are both physical and human environment around the base zones and the reactions that emerge from their surrounding environment   and government response as a result of their actions. As a result of these responses, they develop a way to counter insurgence of these reactions which greatly aids them in effecting their operations. â€Å"Accordingly Moscow and Beijing extended moral, political and material support to both â€Å"progressive governments† and Marxist insurgents in the Third world. the underlying assumption behind support to various insurgents was that deplorable economic conditions in may many of the new nations were the products of imperialist insurgent exploitation by western nations, and this made insurgent leaders allies to western communist bloc,3.† Dr.O’Neill covers the terrorist movement that have occurred in   Afghanistan , Iraq Iran china Sudan, Philippines , Burma Nigeria Saudi Arabia and elsewhere some as a result of regional conflicts and minerals and highlights on some of the tactics used   by Insurgent groups like Al Qaida and Marxist regimes both in Angola and Philippines and how these insurgent groups have gone achieve their objectives and  Ã‚   goals through acquiring popular support causes and effects disunity   among its supporters and   leads to increased support   from some of their   allies   like U.S to special forces   so as to protect their allies national interest , security and those of their friends too and consequently win the war   as a result of ideas   designed   win the war and interest of their friends too. â€Å"The direct and indirect involvement of Washington, Moscow and Beijing in Third world insurgencies led to many to conclude that   the East-West struggle was being waged through proxies in less developed nations†,5. Dr.O’Neill brings the idea of political campaigns through which political insurgents promotes to serve their interest and bar the idea of differentiating friends from foes so as to serve and achieve their goals This idea serves to their advantage as it does not differentiate or separate insurgents from the majority population as the assumption is that the insurgents are minority and therefore makes it hard to separate them from the vast population and serve their interest. We also understand that many insurgencies do survive through external support from ally states or other insurgent groups. This method makes us understand that to what these external supports can bring as a consequence from these insurgents and their motives of their allies or the disparity they bring among countries. This book also makes us understand why these insurgents fail   because of their techniques they use which are non essential and often biased and out of carelessness due to bias and anger, as most insurgents are supported to accomplish a mission or interest of a certain group which are rigid and unfocused   ideologies and mistaken counterinsurgency strategies. O’Neill discusses historical examples of Spanish guerilla movement which aims to battle out Napoleon’s invasion to Spain. He also demonstrates out how this guerilla movement uses popular support of its citizens to gain support of its people and how they are conquered. He also discuses about the rise of south American insurgence particularly the rise of Cuba revolution which makes United States to increase its control over Cuban and other south American insurgencies. â€Å"The united states began extensive training and   advisory efforts   to shore up Latin American regimes increasingly threatened by Marxist insurgents in wake up of Cuban revolution,5†. As a student, the value of this book lies mostly in providing a student with a revolution of how warfare and insurgencies’ have shaped the modern day world with which we have continued to analyze insurgencies and terrorist activities. O’Neill also provides a student with a picture whether a fighting man or a student with an outline through which we have continued to analyze insurgencies, past , future and present. It also shows us that these insurgencies are likely to be the key level of conflict development in future as he illustrates, â€Å"the political community consists of those who interact on regular basis in the process of making and executing of binding decisions. These interactions may consist of active participation in policy process or simply acceptance of decisions†13,† this explains to us the most likely cause of future disputes that may result in rise of insurgence as a result of dictatorial decisions which may be less comprehending. O’Neill also revisits revolutionary theories of war like Lenin’s theories of Mao guerilla war strategies which shows us the real picture of evolution of China and other major Asian powers of the modern day and how these revolutions shaped today’s major powers. As we see most of O’Neill’s   observation have come to pass in modern times like Invasion of   Iraq , due to long standing difference in political ideology on terrorism and dictatorship which have led to unending and very expensive wars I our modern times. As readers, we get the scope that O’Neill presents us with a view of looking at the current challenges facing counter insurgency and anti-terrorism policy. We conclude that one of the most effective ways of dealing with internal terrorism and emerging urban guerrilla’s attacks against internal forces is by highlighting police work, good intelligence, and putting in place sanctions that will hinder movement of these insurgence groups from growing. Intelligence agencies are also the main instruments of getting information about their movements and combating global terrorism. In today’s day world, global terrorism relies mostly on police cooperation and intelligence sharing about terrorism activities. A observed in various cases, the focus of successful counter guerilla forces relies on small-unit operations that ambushes and counter attacks in guerilla infested zones, ‘’128’’.He also suggests that, key issues in analyzing the solutions th e solutions within view points of collective expectations and the roles of both civil military players defined and addressed so as every player to play their roles effectively. In the final pages of the book, O’Neill tries to show out a comprehensive picture through which a government can vies its adversary and   decision makers a successful counterinsurgency operations and best tackle and defeat its enemy. He also advices us to take caution and avoid being polemic and shortsighted which can hinder us to tackle issues successfully and   bring change to our lives rather than going for dangerous decisions that can hinder development and can cost in the end. He also provides a credible and realistic view which can create effective countermeasure insurgent groups promote that can lead to endanger the lives of many as a result of interest of few people in society. Notes O’Neill, Bard. Insurgency terrorism: inside modern revolutionary warfare. (Herden, Virginia: Bradssey’s Inc, 1990).p 1. Bard, 1990, 2. Bard, 1990, 3. Bard, 1990, 5 Bard, 1990, 13 Bard, 1990,128 Bibliography Bard, ONeill. Insurgency terrorism: inside modern revolutionary warfare .Herden, Virginia:    Bradssey’s Inc, 1990.

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Buildup of Emotions and Lack of Communication A Perfect...

The human mind, only able to withstand so much pressure before losing control, is like a volcano. The harsh truths that accumulate throughout the course of one’s life can lead to devastation, the eruption of the mind’s volcano. American twentieth century author, J.D. Salinger, illustrates the devastating consequences caused by a buildup of emotions and a lack of communication in his short story, â€Å"A Perfect Day for Bananafish.† Salinger â€Å"has become, in biographer Ian Hamiltons phrase, ‘famous for not wanting to be famous’ † (Stevick). In this short story, Salinger details the interactions of the main character, Seymour Glass, with Sybil Carpenter, a young girl. Through these interactions, Salinger provides the reader with a glimpse into†¦show more content†¦However, Muriel fails to truly understand her husband’s motives, perhaps playing a role in his demise. Seymour seeks shelter, for his â€Å"war experiences have le ft him so badly shaken that he searches for some form of purity in what he sees as a dangerous and corrupt world† (â€Å"Overview: ‘A Perfect Day for Bananafish.’ †). Unbeknown to the individuals surrounding him, Seymour yearns for refuge from the painful truths of society. By using the sun as a symbol for materialism, Salinger highlights the detriments of being immersed in a materialistic world with nowhere to turn. Salinger also uses the bananafish as a symbol for Seymour’s internal emotional struggle to suggest the harsh consequences resulting from a buildup of emotions. The story of the bananafish, which Seymour communicates to Sybil, shares a striking resemblance to Seymour’s emotional and social situation. The bananafish ultimately succumbs to a death resulting from eating too many bananas and therefore being too large to escape the banana hole. Seymour tells Sybil, â€Å"Naturally, after that theyre so fat they cant get out of the hole again. Cant fit through the door† (Salinger 8). Similarly, Seymour, overwhelmed by the jarring reality of life and plagued by feelings of wretched dejection and isolation, becomes unable to escape his situation. Salinger’s use of symbolism is important because, as Fassano writes, â€Å"If he [Seymour] represents the bananafish, then his case of banana fever must be caused by the