Tuesday, December 24, 2019

The Relationships Between Scope Definition and Time...

Running head: THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SCOPE DEFINITION AND TIME The Relationships Between Scope Definition and Time Management The relationships between scope definition and time management have as many similarities as they do differences. Scope definition basically, is knowing exactly what needs to be accomplished. This is the first step in accurately forecasting and controlling cost and schedule, which ties into time management. Using quantity surveys performed on a periodic basis are the foundation of determining what has been accomplished and is crucial to cost and schedule control. By measuring exact installed quantities, the scope can accurately determine a true physical percent complete, measure progress, and determine†¦show more content†¦These are just some of the ideas behind the scope definition of a project that should be paid attention to while implementing a project. Time Management Time management when broken up in to two parts time is defined as the measured or measurable period during which an action, process or condition exists or continues. (Mish p. 1235) Management is defined as the conducting or supervising of something. (Mish p. 722) So when both are combined the definition can be made that time management is the conducting or supervising of a measurable period during which an action process or condition exists or continues. In usual schooling, children are taught their entire lives on how to manage time properly. This is because in the real world or the working world time management plays a huge part in all of our lives. From getting to work on time in the morning by managing our sleep time and waking up on time, to completing our daily tasks in and out of the office to allow time for all of the other tasks we must accomplish before we lay our heads down to go to sleep again. In project management, project managers are dealing with the exact same concep ts. A project manager must be able to schedule portions of the project to be completed by certain deadlines that have been set byShow MoreRelatedEssay: the Importance of Planning Project Boundaries1707 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction: â€Å"Project management is a series of activities embodied in a process of getting things done† (Cleland, 2007, p.51). What stages would be involved on defining the ‘series of activities’ and what needs to be ‘done’? Would a complete definition of the project and its boundaries be directly linked to the project success? This essay will critically analyze the following statement: â€Å"The First step in making project management work must be a complete definition of the boundaries acrossRead MoreCIS 348 ASSIGNMENT 1970 Words   |  4 Pagesof management required to produce each of the deliverables described are low-level management, middle-level management, and top-level management. 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Monday, December 16, 2019

Description of the educational system in Egypt Free Essays

The intent of this chapter is to give the reader a general position of the context in which the survey is conducted. The chapter will travel, from planetary to specific, by giving a general description of the educational system in Egypt runing from its doctrine, structuring and finance to curriculum planning, design and development. Emphasis will be given to English linguistic communication instruction ; its purposes, and manner of development. We will write a custom essay sample on Description of the educational system in Egypt or any similar topic only for you Order Now A farther point about higher instruction: current state of affairs and national reform is highlighted. Finally, EFL teacher developing programme, the function of CDELT in accomplishing national ends are brought into focal point for its importance to the whole intent of the probe. 2.1 Country profile The Arab Republic of Egypt lies in the north eastern portion of Africa and Sinai Peninsula in the western portion of Asia. It is about one million square kilometers in size. The population of Egypt was estimated in 2008 as 75,175,062 harmonizing to the Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics in Egypt. ( Said A ; Mourad, 2008 ) . 2.2 The nature and doctrine of instruction in Egypt Egypt ‘s instruction system is the largest in the Mena part and among the largest systems in the universe. As of 1999-2000, the system reported an registration of about 16 million, of which 7 million are in primary instruction, 4 million in preparative instruction, 3 million in secondary instruction, and over 1.8 million in third instruction. The system besides employs the largest figure of civil retainers in Egypt about 3.8 million employees ( The World Bank, 2007 ) . Some negative features of the Egyptian educational system include what Hargreaves ( 1997 ) termed â€Å" a additive consolidative merger † ; instructors with low degrees both in the cognition of the capable affair and in teaching method ; a mismatch between course of studies and curricula drawn at the cardinal national degree and the existent instruction larning state of affairs ; ritualisation, and mechanistic acquisition and learning methods. Other negative characteristics include: examination-driven direction, politicisation, bureaucratism that hinders the accomplishment of indispensable marks behind schooling, limited resources, centralization, and mal-distribution of educational services amongst the province parts ( Jarrar A ; Massialas, 1992 ) . Many of the defects of the educational system, and so its failure to convey about effectual long-run reform, have been due to its being extremely centralised, in malice of efforts at decentralization. The system is really hierarchal, with the Ministry of Higher Education ( MOE ) at the top of the pyramid. The system is based on senior status instead than virtue. Due to its extremely centralised and bureaucratic nature, the educational system defines and predetermines what is to be taught, how it is to be taught, the functions of instructors and scholars, every bit good as the intended results of the educational procedure. Given this character, the Egyptian educational system is about imperviable to influences and enterprises from instructors, parents and scholars ( Gahin, 2001 ) . Egyptian instruction has been portrayed. harmonizing to ( Hargreaves, 1997 ) as â€Å" undemocratic † , â€Å" teacher-centred ‘ , â€Å" autocratic † ‘ and â€Å" extremely competitory † . Students ‘ greatest concern is to hive away and keep information so that when it is needed, they pour it out in the test which is held to prove their grounds of larning. Their exam tonss are the exclusive standards for pupils ‘ success. 2.3 Higher Education System in Egypt Egypt has a really extended higher instruction system. About 30 % of all Egyptians in the relevant age group go to university. However, merely half of them alumnus. The Ministry of Higher Education supervises the third degree of instruction. There are a figure of universities providing to pupils in diverse Fieldss. In the current instruction system, there are 17 public universities, 51 public non-university establishments, 16 private universities and 89 private higher establishments. The higher instruction cohort is expected to increase by close to 6 per centum ( 60,000 ) pupils per annum through 2009. ( Higher Education in Egypt: Reappraisals of National Policies for Education, 2010 ) In 1990, a statute law was passed to supply greater liberty to the universities. But still the instruction substructure, equipment and human resources are non in topographic point to provide to the lifting higher instruction pupils. But at that place has non been a similar addition in passing on bettering the higher instruction system in footings of debut of new plans and engineerings. Both at national degree ( inspection systems, scrutinies ) and at local degree ( school degree pupil appraisals ) steps of the success of instruction schemes and the public presentation of the system are weak. ( Ginsburb A ; Megahed, 2009 ) Although higher instruction was founded much earlier in Egypt before it appeared in Europe ( Metcalfe, 2008 ) , The Government of Egypt recognizes that there are still existent challenges to be faced in the sector, foremost amongst which are the demand to significantly better sector administration and efficiency, increase institutional liberty, significantly better the quality and relevancy of higher instruction plans, and maintain coverage at bing degrees. Recent Government actions to construct political consensus on issues critical to reform hold created a clime that is mature for alteration. The Ministry of Higher Education ( MOHE ) acts as a title-holder for reform. The Minister, appointed in 1997, rapidly established a commission for the reform of higher instruction known as the Higher Education Enhancement Programme ( HEEP ) Committee which drew in a broad scope of stakeholders including industrialists and Parliamentarians. A National Conference on higher instruction reform was held in February 2000, and a Declaration for action emanating from the Conference was endorsed by the President and the Prime Minister. The Declaration identified 25 specific reform enterprises. Due to the dynamic nature of the reform scheme, which entails reconsidering precedences for each period, a Strategic Planning Unit ( SPU ) was established for the MOHE to guarantee the sustainability of planning and undertaking monitoring during the three stages and for future 1s. A Students ‘ Activity Project ( SAP ) was besides initiated as portion of plan accreditation similar to scientific research and station alumnus surveies. 2.3.1 Egyptian universities: Universities in Egypt are by and large either state-funded or in private funded. Education in Egypt is free by jurisprudence, nevertheless there are really little fees paid for registration. Public establishments, with few exclusions are by and large overcrowded with a pupil organic structure of several 1000s. Private universities are either Egyptian or foreign, and normally have a much smaller pupil organic structure and with a much higher tuition rates. Public Universities Public universities are under authorities disposal. Public Higher instruction is free in Egypt, and Egyptian pupils merely pay enrollment fees. International pupils pay full tuition with fees that reach up to ? 1,500 a twelvemonth. In 2004, the Egyptian authorities announced its program to make new public universities from dividing multi-branch universities ( Cairo University, Menoufia HYPERLINK â€Å" hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanta_University † University ) . This should let the enlargement of these much neglected smaller rural subdivisions and supply infinite for the increasing figure of pupils. There is besides al Azhar University, considered the best university for the survey of faith and scientific discipline. Private Universities Before 1993, merely two private foreign establishments were established decennaries ago. The American University in Cairo, founded in 1919 and the Arab Academy for Science and Technology ( AAST ) . Under a new jurisprudence in 1993, Egyptian private universities were established get downing from 1996. These new universities are accredited from the Egyptian Supreme Council of Universities every 3 old ages, in add-on to accreditation from foreign educational organic structures in Europe. ( Herrera, 2007 ) 2.3.2 Admission Admission to public universities and establishments operates through a centralised office, Admission Office of Egyptian Universities. This office receives applications after the consequences from the General Secondary Education Certificate are announced in any of its offices or online. The application day of the months are announced every twelvemonth but normally take topographic point every August. The application is both discipline-based and university-based. Students are asked to make full the admittances application that naming their picks of their coveted subject and university in a descending order of precedence. Students with higher tonss have a better opportunity of procuring a topographic point for themselves in their school of pick. While lower-scoring pupil may â€Å" acquire stuck † in a school or train different from that they desired, which might take them to seek admittance in private universities where competition for topographic points is less ferocious. Admission to private universities is different and is similar to universe broad registration processs. 2.3.3 Course of study In universities, general or private, course of study are left to lectors and professors to make up one’s mind the doctrine, guidelines, and even stuffs that they think pupils should larn. By and large talking, the course of study is centralised plenty to incarnate political and classless rules presented in free instruction and guaranting that all students have entree to the same programme of survey. It aims to raise criterions, guarantee that all pupils attain the aims at each degree, and to make the conditions for increased school and instructor answerability. 2.4 English linguistic communication instruction in Egypt English has long been given a particular position in Egypt, whether â€Å" a necessary immorality during the British business † or â€Å" a practical vehicle for educational, economic andaˆÂ ¦ societal mobility ( Schaub, 2000, p. 235 ) † . the chief aims set for ELT are to develop the ability to utilize English for communicating ; to further favorable attitudes towards larning in general and towards appropriate foreign civilizations in peculiar ; to develop an consciousness of the nature of linguistic communication and linguistic communication acquisition and hence, achieve cross-cultural consciousness ; to assist pupils ‘ womb-to-tomb acquisition every bit good as develop self-independence and to advance collaborative as a measure towards conveying up citizens who appreciate teamwork ( Schaub, 2000 ) . These are what is stated as the theoretical purposes of instruction. However, As far as the EFL schoolroom is concerned, it is non different from any other school topic, since it is a portion of the whole system. The state of affairs might conceivably be worse, due to the particular nature of the English linguistic communication learning in Egypt. The dominant form in the bulk of schoolrooms is that of an active instructors and inactive scholars. The instructor is the exclusive authorization to make up one’s mind â€Å" what † and â€Å" haw † in the instruction and acquisition procedure, based on the cognition spelled out by the stakeholders. In footings of quality, the instruction and acquisition of EFL is characterised by instructors ‘ low proficiency in the mark linguistic communication. Teachers ‘ chief involvement and purpose is to acquire their pupils to go through their tests. Students ‘ Markss in such tests are the grounds of instructors ‘ success along with their governments in accomplishing the purposes of the MOE. That is why it is non surprising to happen a parallel system of instruction called â€Å" private tuition † taking at enabling pupils to go through the test and acquire high Markss. This private and Markss oriented tuition has long been fought by the authorities, which tries difficult to take serious and terrible steps against it. However, these attempts have been in vain up to now. Besides, a big per centum of primary and preparative school instructors are non-specialists ( 41 % ) ( Ibrahim, 2008 ) . In add-on, rating techniques do non get by with the development in acq uisition and learning methodological analysis techniques, and are rather far from the existent appraisal of pupils ‘ public presentation. 2.5 Teacher preparation Reform Programme: Egypt has no deficit of instructors, so if anything Egypt has a excess of instructors, with some of 800,000 instructors presently believed to be in the state. ( Abdel-WAHAB, January 2008 ) ( Crookes, 2003 ) concludes that autochthonal Egyptian instructors, though non needfully utilizing activities or schoolroom interaction forms thought most desirable by Second Language Acquistion theoreticians, likely acquire better than foreign teachers ; but that the big category contexts that were new to the Egyptian instruction system ( through non unusual around the universe ) were a challenge met by the visitants. However the techniques used by visitants to pull off theses challenges, Holliday suggests, would be improbable to hold positive long-run effects because they did non construct on autochthonal forms and penchants. ( Holliday, 1996 ) concludes that † merely a new, rationalized-yet traditional- attack, could be to the full effectual in theaˆÂ ¦.culture of Egyptian university big classesaˆÂ ¦.. Exceptions apart, merely local lectors would be able to the full to accomplish this, because it would necessitate a rationalized edifice and re-allocation [ of thoughts and resources ] on an bing traditional footing ( p.100 ) Well aware of the challenges, the authorities is now looking for new ways of making things and has emarked on a big graduated table reform programme of public instruction to give single instituttions greater liberty and engagement to the private sector to assist increase capacity and better criterions. ( The Report: Egypt 2009, 2009 ) The major accomplishments of the Higher Education Enhancement Programme ( HEEP ) have been integrated into the national Education strategic program for the period 2008-2012, which aims to deconcentrate the national the national school construction, present school-based reform and better human resources through professional development programmes. The increased accent on instructor preparation within the model of the National Education Strategic Plan is considered one of the most of import facets of the reform programme. 2.6 EFL prospective instructors preparation programme at Menoufia University: Since the focal point in this survey is centred on prospective EFL instructors ‘ perceptual experiences of microteaching, it will be utile to supply an overview of Menoufia university, Faculty of instruction and their readying programme in the school of instruction. 2.6.1 Menoufia University: Historical background An Egyptian Public University founded in 1976, is located chiefly in Shibin EL Kom, a metropolis in Delta and the capital of the Monufia Governorate. There is besides a subdivision in 1 † Sadat City, founded in 2006. It contains modules: of Education, Agriculture, Arts, Computers and Information, Commerce, Law, and Medicine. Both undergraduate and post-graduate instruction is offered. 2.6.2 Menoufia university mission, general intents and strategic aims Menoufia university ‘s mission is lending to construct the academic and moral construction of people, and developing both the local and national societies by supplying the specialised cognition and accomplishments peculiarly those that are related to the rural and new industrial communities through high quality educational, research, and social services that can assist the university to accomplish a competitory advantage at the national, regional, and international degrees. The general intents of the University represent the cardinal indexs of success of the achievement of the University ‘s mission. Seven general intents are identified for Menoufiya University. Each of the old general intents has a figure of strategic aims that reflect them. ( see appendix 1 ) 2.6.3 Faculty of Education, Menoufia University The module of Education was foremost established in 1971, affiliated to Ain Shams University. In 1975, it became attached to Tanta University. The module so became attached to Minoufiya University at its initiation in 1976. It contains sections of Educational Psychology. Curricula and Teaching Methods, and Education Fundamentals. Its Bachelors grades are offered in combination with one of the sections in the module of Humanistic disciplines or the Faculty of Science. 2.6.4 school of Education English section readying classs: Theoretically, EFL instructors is prepared in the module of instruction through two complementary sets of classs. The first set of classs is chiefly linguistic communication proficiency classs ( capable affair cognition like English literature, interlingual rendition, grammar, phonetics, and linguistics ) , and the 2nd set is pedagogical classs ( the instruction proficiency ) , including classs like foundations of instruction ; comparative instruction ; educational psychological science ; along with the learning practicum that aims to fix pupil instructors for the prospective occupation. The practicum is jointly carried out and supervised by the MOE inspectors and instructors along with the staff of modules of instruction. Bettering Pre service teacher developing programmes: The national board for professional instruction criterions ( NBPTS ) identified five features of high-quality instructor: Teachers are committed to pupils and their acquisition. Teachers know the topic they teach and how to learn those topics to pupils. Teachers are responsible for pull offing and supervising pupil acquisition. Teachers think consistently about their pattern and learn from experience. Teachers are members of larning communities. Demand for teacher readying plans at establishments of higher instruction and through a go oning procedure of development and research, the centre for the development of English Language Teaching ( CDELT ) supported by the Integrated English Language Program ( IELP- II ) have integrated information about instructional rules to develop Egyptian criterions for instructors graduating from pre-service English instructor instruction plans ( STEP ) . Through the professional instruction plan, campaigners are expected to run into the criterions at progressively complex degrees. Campaigners are assessed at each degree to show public presentation. The subjects of building cognition, developing pattern, and furthering relationships provide the foundation for each of the criterions. These criterions, which are grouped into five chief spheres schoolroom direction, linguistic communication, direction, appraisal, and professionalism, organize the anchor of our instructor instruction plans. The STEPS undertaking is a countrywide enterprise under the protections of the Center for the Development of English Language Teaching ( CDELT ) in coaction with the Program Planning and Monitoring Unit ( PPMU ) . It is sponsored by the Integrated English Language Project II ( IELP-II ) . Its purpose is to put criterions for instructors of English at pre-service degree. The STEPS undertaking force consists of representatives from 12 Faculties of Education from nine universities and from the Ministry of Education of the Arab Republic of Egypt. The Task Force has drafted a set of criterions in five spheres depicting what freshly qualified instructors from our Faculties of Education should cognize and be able to make. The Role of CDELT to better Clinical supervising during Practicum: Harmonizing to ( Bowers A ; Gaies, 1997 ) , Five rules underline the clinical supervivsion of CDELT classs. These are: There should be a balance between. theory and pattern, between the †educational † and the † preparation † maps. The feasibleness of proposals for alteration in instructor public presentation should be judged against the existent restraints of the learning context. The personal sensitiveness indispensable to effectual counciling and preparation is best developed within the security of a system or † paradigm † of counselor-teacher interaction. Observation should be systematic and focused, with rating based on grounds available to the instructor. Reding should steer the instructor toward specific, mensurable, and moderate alterations in behaviour. Examination of theses rules offers an indicant of the scheme of the CDELT attack to supervisor readying. The CDELT offers a full-time class of 24 hebdomads. It includes 20 hebdomad class work in four blocks of 5 hebdomads each, and one 4-week block of practical experience, in the center of five blocks. During the first two blocks, along with classs related to linguistic communication betterment, there are talks and seminars in debut to linguistics, theories of English linguistic communication instruction, and learning methods. Theses satisfy the demand to set up perceptual experiences of what linguistic communication is, what instruction is, and alternate attacks to the instruction of English. Over the diploma class as a whole, we aim to integrate into supervisor readying the five indispensable purposes of instructor instruction identified by, which among them guarantee theoretical grasp and practical application: principle, experience, observation, test and integrating. 2.7 Decision The purpose of this chapter has been to supply the layout of the Egyptian educational system so as to give the reader an overview about the context in which this survey is connected, clarifying why this survey is of import for Egyptian instruction in general and linguistic communication instruction in Egypt in peculiar. Furthermore, the chapter reveals the alterations and fortunes that have been underway for about two decennaries now. These alterations are represented by proposing and planing new attacks, rules and weaponries for the general instruction, and in peculiar, for EFL acquisition and instruction. The undermentioned chapter is chiefly devoted to reexamining the literature related to EFl instructor readying programme and the function of microteaching in bettering their instruction public presentation. Abdel-WAHAB, A. ( January 2008 ) . Modeling Students ‘ Purpose to Adopt E-learning: A Case From Egypt. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE, 9, 157-167. Arbors, R. , A ; Gaies, S. ( Eds. ) . ( 1997 ) . Clinical supervising of linguistic communication instruction: the supervising as trainer and pedagogue Cambridge university imperativeness. Crookes, G. ( Ed. ) . ( 2003 ) . A practicum in TESOL: Professional Development through Teaching Practice: Cambridge University Press. Ginsburb, M. , A ; Megahed, N. ( Eds. ) . ( 2009 ) . Comparative Positions on Teachers, Teaching and Professionalism Springer. Hargreaves, E. ( 1997 ) . The sheepskin disease in Egypt: Learning, instruction and the monster of the secondary departure certification. . Appraisal in Education, 4, 161-167. Herrera, L. ( Ed. ) . ( 2007 ) . Higher Education in the Arab World: Springer. Higher Education in Egypt: Reappraisals of National Policies for Education. ( 2010 ) . ) . Holliday, A. ( Ed. ) . ( 1996 ) . Large-and small-class civilizations in Egyptian university schoolrooms: a cultural justification for course of study alteration. : Cambrigde University imperativeness. Ibrahim, H. ( 2008 ) . The strategic reading procedures of Egyptian EFL scholars. Exeter University. Metcalfe, A. ( Ed. ) . ( 2008 ) . Speculating Research Policy: A Model for Higher Education: Springer. The Report: Egypt 2009. ( 2009 ) . ) : Oxford concern group. Said, M. , A ; Mourad, M. ( Eds. ) . ( 2008 ) . Egypt. Baston: Baston College Center for International Higher Education. Schaub, M. ( 2000 ) . English in the Arab Republic of Egypt. World Englishes, 19 ( 2 ) , 225-238. Appendix 1 Menoufia University mission, purposes and Strategic Aims Purpose Strategic aims 1 A alumnus who is compatible with the modern-day challenges Bettering the quality of the educational procedure harmonizing to the both the local and international criterions. Associating theA educationA withA theA issuesA of bothA societyA andA localA environment. Effective leading of pupils. Bettering the wellness and societal attention of the pupils. Increasing the competitory capablenesss of the alumnuss in the labour market. 2 An first-class staff member. Accurate choice of the instruction and back uping staff members. Sustainability of the integrated development of the instruction and back uping staff members. Effective motive of the instruction and back uping staff members. Continuous public presentation assessment of the instruction and back uping staff members. Advanced systems for advancing the instruction and supportingA staff members. 3 Advanced academic research to be oriented by the intents of the national comprehensive development programs. Constructing an advanced academic base for the scientific research. Associating the scientific research with the issues of the comprehensive development programs at the national degree. 4 Promoting values and ideal rules. Developing and intensifying the belongingness to Egypt. Constructing the positive personality. Guaranting the values and committedness. Guaranting and esteeming the university ‘s values and traditions. 5 Civilized society and developing environment. Directing and utilizing the scientific research to function the development demands of the environment. Freedom of sentiment and protection of rational belongings. Bettering the quality of life. Developing consciousness of the cultural heritage. Developing the sense of beauty and encouraging creativeness. Developing the environmental consciousness. Promoting the behaviours that are compatible with the society development. 6 Distinguished position of the University in the development procedure of the instruction system. Distinguishing the university from others al both the local and international degrees. Bettering the society ‘s trust and convection of the university ‘s roleA and accomplishments. Triping the university ‘s parts in the local and internationalA academic motion. More effectual function of the university in the current development systems of the higher instruction and scientific research. 7 Effective administrative system. Bettering the organisation of the university ‘s councils and commissions. Bettering the university ‘s organisational and occupation constructions. Computerizing both the administrative and fiscal systems. Bettering the forming facets of the university ‘s fiscal and private concern units. Bettering the choice procedure of the non-academic leaders and the administrative staff. Continuous development of abilities and accomplishments of administrative staff. Effective motive of the administrative staff. Effective public presentation assessment and controlling of the administrative system. How to cite Description of the educational system in Egypt, Essays

Saturday, December 7, 2019

B. F. Skinner Essay Example For Students

B. F. Skinner Essay B. F. SkinnerBurris Frederic Skinner was born on March 20th, 1904 in Susquehanna,Pennsylvania. His mother, Grace M. Burrhus, was a stenographer and a secretary,in a law office and later in a railroad chief executives office. His father,William A. Skinner, was an attorney, who studied law with another local attorneyat a New York Law School. Skinners parents were both good students. His fatherhad bought several sets of books, so there was a lot of reading material theirchildren. Skinner said that his parents never used physical punishment, exceptfor the time they washed his mouth out with soap for bad language. (Ulrich,1997) B. F. Skinner was very adventurous child. He lead a 300 mile canoe tripdown the Susquehanna River when he was only 13 years old. He was a naturalinventor and he loved build things. One of his inventions included a device thatautomatically reminded him to hang up his pajamas in the morning. He played thesaxophone in a jazz band during high school and played piano un til his failingeyesight made it hard for him to read the music. In college, he was veryindependent, and sometimes even a prankster. He graduated from Hamilton Collegein 1926 and later received his P.h.D. in psychology at Harvard University. (Ulrich, 1997)John B. WatsonJohn Broadus Watson was born in Greenville, South Carolina on January9th 1878. He went to college at Furman University and the University of Chicago. Watson created Psychological behaviorism in 1912. He told the world about histheory of behaviorism in a 1913 paper entitled Psychology as the BehavioristViews It. In the paper he described Behaviorism as the part of psychology thatshows behavior as a series of observable movements in time and space. (Turner,1997) He rejected both conscious and unconscious mental activities and definedbehavior as a response to a stimulus. A few of John B. Watsons literary worksinclude the following books and papers: Animal Education, Behavior, Psychologyfrom the Standpoint of a Behaviorist, Behaviorism, and Psychological Care ofInfant and Child. (Turner, 1997)Along with his own theories of behaviorism, Skinner developed the theoryof operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is based on the idea that webehave the way we do because this kind of behavior has had certain consequencesin the past. (Demar, 1996) For example, if your parents give you a present whenyou do what your told, you will be likely to behave when you want to get apresent. This means that basically- you do something to get a reward. LikeWatson, Skinner denied that feelings play any part in determining behavior. Instead, he claimed that the drive to be rewarded determines our behavior. (Demar, 1996)Some critics feel that operant conditioning was a dangerous techniquebecause Skinner was controlling people and could have manipulated them. In replyto their criticism, Skinner argued that control is not wrong. Control is veryimportant and sometimes unavoidable in education, government, and therapy. (Bijou, 1994) What Skinner objects to is the fact that control is usually usedin negative ways which include the use of threat, punishment or to use otherpeople. Skinner argues that because of this, people are against control, becausethe people in control use their power it in a negative way. For instance, Inthe family, a child is controlled by the fear of punishment from his parents. In school, the students are placed in a threatening environment in which theycan escape only by learning. Our government controls us through laws, rules, andregulations. Skinner claims that what is needed is not less control but bettercontrol. Better control could be used if society had adopted his psychologicaltheories. If this where to happen there would be better ways of teaching, betterworking conditions, and a better system of government. (Skinner, 1938) Skinnerhad many inventions that pertained to behaviorism. One of his most famousinventions was called a Skinner box. A Skinner box is a chamber made bySkinner which helps control animal behavior in laboratory experiments. In oneexperiment using the skinner box, he made it so if the chicken pecks on theyellow, green, or red buttons, he gets nothing. But if he hits the blue button,a small amount of food comes down the chute; therefor, the chicken is reinforcedwith food for hitting the correct button. He also created other inventio ns,including an air-crib for babies and the first cumulative recorder. (Bjord,1990) Skinners experiments with rats and pigeons raise the following