Saturday, August 31, 2019
Throughout my time enrolled in this course, I have learned many valuable lessons. However, the most important lesson that I have learned is how to be a better writer. By completing the various assignments in this course, particularly the substantiation assignment, I have learned how to better explain my opinions as well as support them. However, one of the major challenges that I faced in this course was properly citing my work. Since I have used a different style of citation throughout high school, it was difficult for me to adjust to the new citation rules at the university level. With regards to assignment six, I enjoyed completing this assignment. Part of the reason why I enjoyed it was that it was a topic that I really liked. However, the tricky part of the assignment, according to me, was coming up with facts to support the essay. Nevertheless, I believe that I did a pretty good job finding enough evidence to support the thesis. Overall, I was pretty satisfied with this course. Although I did not achieve the mark I desired, I still learned valuable lessons throughout the course of this subject. One specific quality that I liked about this course was the use of Turnitin. It was a very helpful tool which made handing in assignment very easy and convenient. Another aspect of the course that I really admired was the availability of the Catalyst. Due to its easy access, I was able to learn key skills to help strengthen my assignments. Last but not least, the use of peer review was very beneficial as well. It was a very unique tool to help students improve their essay. One thing that I do recommend for the future is to provide the students with a grading criteria. Often times, I was confused as to what I need to incorporate to ensure I receive the proper marks. Nevertheless, this is a very educational course and I highly recommend it to future students. I wish to thank you for reviewing my assignment. If you have any question please contact me at ahmed12q@uwindsor. ca and (519)-251-1776 to reach you at. Sincerely, Danish Ahmed Student Number: 103323080 Business Administration DA ENCLOSURES: Assignment #6 COPY: FILE Genetically Modified Foods The release and use of genetically modified (GM) crops and GM-derived ingredients has caused debates in many parts of the world. Moreover, many experts, despite having conflicting views, share a good deal of common ground on certain features of the GM debate: in particular, the GM foodsÃ¢â¬â¢ unknown long term effects. In other words, experts agree that many issues, like potential health, ecological, and economical hazards, concerning GM foods merit attention due to the current, uncertain results of GM food technology. GM crops come under the broad category of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and defined as organisms whose genetic information has been altered by DNA Recombinant Technology (a technique that allows the artificial combination of genetic material of different individuals) (Whitman 1). Although this scientific technique is fairly recent, it has, nevertheless, revolutionized the agricultural industry. Scientist are now able to produce new species of rice, maize, soy bean, corn and many other staple crops with resistance to drought, herbicides and many pests (Campbell and Reece 406). As such, it holds the potential to increase crop yield as fewer crops are destroyed due to environmental conditions. However, it was not until 1998 when GM cropsÃ¢â¬â¢ initial drawbacks were realized. Genetically modified foods, including both raw crops and processed ingredients, impose serious health risks, both to humans and other organisms. Moreover, there is evidence that genetic modifications can trigger uncontrollable genetic interactions amongst the host genes, endangering many agricultural species. In August 1998 the first controversy was sparked, especially in Europe, by a report from a leading nutrition researcher, Dr. Arpad Pusztai, concerning the safety of GM foods. Pusztai claimed that GM food fed rats showed stunted growth and weak immune systems. His report, however, was greatly criticized and rejected by many scientists because of lack of substantial evidence (Pusztai 1). Nevertheless, the report opened up an area of contemplation. In May 2005, a report published by Monsanto, a leading biotech firm, confirmed differences in kidney sizes and blood composition of rats fed with GM corn (Lendman 1). Although these documented reports are limited to laboratory settings, the results do point to a possibility of health hazards in the long run. It is evident that GM foods require more research before they are safe for consumption because if the symptoms do arise, it will affect a wide range of consumers and the damage will be impossible to overcome. Apart from direct health hazards, there are concerns over the emergence of insecticide resistant weeds and pests because of GM foods (Weaver 160). Since certain species of GM crops are resistant to insecticides, they allow farmers to spray more chemicals in order to avoid weeds and pests from destroying their harvests. However, since all living organisms are biological entities subject to the natural processes of evolution and ecology, any insecticide designed to kill an organism adds selective pressure for resistance on that target organism. According to S. A Weaver and M. C. Morris of the Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Ethics, this theoretical concern has been repeatedly demonstrated with the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria in human medicine and in the evolution of resistance to chemical pesticides in agriculture (Weaver 161). There are over 500 species of insects known to be resistant to insecticides, and the numbers will steadily grow if not controlled (Bergman 1). Insecticide resistance poses severe effects to agriculture and health. If pests become resistant to conventional insecticides, more quantities of more powerful chemicals may have to be used. This increased use of insecticides will, in turn, increase chemical exposure on other forms of life in the surrounding area, including humans, and will have adverse effects on soil and water due to run offs (National Research Council 2). These effects are amplified in regions where GM crops are planted as GM crops, unlike conventional crops, do not absorb or breakdown any of these chemicals. As such, more chemicals are left over in active form. Nevertheless, the lives of humans and other organisms are endangered. Another potential health concern in using GM foods is the possibility of allergic reactions in humans due to the insertion of exotic genes into plants. This hazard came into notice in 1993 when Pioneer Hi-Bred International, another biotech firm, developed a soybean variety with an added gene from a Brazil nut. A study later done by the University of Nebraska revealed that the added gene could cause allergic reactions in humans (Leary 1). The second category of risks is that to the environment, especially by insecticide-resistant GM crops. Insecticide-resistant crops make up the largest segment of GM crops. According to statistics, nearly 81% of all GM crops harvested worldwide contained a gene for insecticide resistance (Sustainable Agricultural Network 3). Since all agricultural systems exist within an overall ecosystem, there is concern among scientists that numerous complex interrelationships amongst natural organisms can become disrupted by the introduction of GM crops. This concern became particularly important in a study done in the United Kingdom in May 2005 which proved that biodiversity was lower in fields with insecticide-resistant crops when compared to the conventional varieties (Weaver 169). The reason for the shocking results was attributed to the physical differences between insecticide resistant plants and conventional crops. Insecticide resistant plants have immunity to chemicals and pests because they produce a form of toxic protein called Bt protein (Weaver 160). During conventional insecticide spraying, only the above ground part of the plant is exposed to chemicals. However, in the case of insecticide resistant GM crops, toxin is present throughout the plant, even in the roots. When the GM crops are harvested, the remains of the roots release these Bt toxins. Thus, the concentration of toxins in the soil is increased, endangering even the beneficial organisms of the area. The effect of toxins expressed through GM crops is, therefore, of real concern. However, the biggest environmental concern associated with genetic modification is the inability to prevent exotic genetic material from transferring into the wild population. Many experts are concerned that the genes inserted into GM crops to increase their yield might transfer into weeds by complex genetic movement pathways (Pandey 1). This would cause the spread of Ã¢â¬Å"super weeds. Ã¢â¬ Such weeds will become immune to the chemicals normally used to control them, resulting in the use of stronger chemical controls (Randerson 1). The surrounding population of organisms, including humans, will inevitably be affected with increased toxicity in the environment. There is also a concern that insect resistance genes in GM plants may escape into the wild, leading to the more rapid development of resistance in insect populations, or to insect resistance in wild plants. Nevertheless, the delicate relationship that exists in the ecosystem will be disrupted, as the normal insect-plant relationship will be altered. Although these are one of the first instances of genetic transfer, scientists are now beginning to question GM foodsÃ¢â¬â¢ implications on the environment. The third category of risks is that relating to economics. Despite increased yields, GM crops remain an economical concern, especially to the third world. This concern is highlighted by the development of a highly controversial genetically modified food technology Ã¢â¬â the terminator seed. The terminator seeds are genetically modified to produce plants that bear infertile seeds, which the biotech companies feel will reduce gene transfer into the wild (McDonagh 1). However, analysts feel these seeds could devastate small farmers everywhere and give multinational biotech companies an even stronger grip on world food production since terminator technology will force farmers to buy new seeds every season instead of reusing seeds from their crops (Mooney 1). Even if terminator technology is outlawed, GM crops will still not allow third world nations to compete with the developed countries in the area of agriculture. Since all of the major genetically modified seeds are patented by multinational biotech companies, the prices of these seeds are controlled by such corporations (Nestle 1). Struggling economies, whose major financial resources depend on agricultural exports, are unable to purchase these seeds. Moreover, conventional crops are no match to the increased harvests of GM crops. As such, most of the market share is owned by developed nations who harbour major biotech companies. Hence, the global economy is affected due to the sanctioning of GM foods. In conclusion, the concern about the genetic modification of food is an issue that involves complex area of study, like health, ecology and economics. The combination of theoretical knowledge and empirical data provided clearly outlines the associated risks of genetic modification of food/crops in the long run. Unlike conventional crops, GM crops are inherently unstable in expressing their genetic information and exhibit abnormal proteins which cause fatal allergic reactions and other health risks in humans and other organisms. Moreover, the genetic transfer of information from GM crops to the wild can promote the evolution of Ã¢â¬Å"super weedsÃ¢â¬ and insecticide resistant pests, causing disturbances in delicate ecological relationships and increased use of pesticides. Furthermore, the decision to release GM foods holds important economic concerns that must be addressed when assessing the risks of GM foods. The terminator seed technology as well as increased involvement of biotech corporations in the agriculture business can bring about changes in the global economy, some of which could be catastrophic for the developing nations. Works Cited Bergman, Jerry. Pesticide Resistance in Insects: Bad News for Macroevolution Theory. Association of Alberta. April 2004. Web. 28 Nov 2010. Campbell, Neil, and Jane Reece. Biology. San Francisco: Pearson, 2005. Print. Leary, Warren. Genetic Engineering of Crops Can Spread Allergies, Study Shows. New York Times. 14 March 1996. Web. 28 Nov 2010. Lendman, Stephen. Health Hazards of Genetically Engineered Foods. Rense. 22 February 2008. Web. 28 Nov 2010. McDonagh, Sean. The Pros and Cons of GE Foods. Columban. 2003. Web. 28 Nov 2010. Mooney, Pat. Terminator Seeds Threaten an End to Farming. Third World Traveler. 1998. Web. 28 Nov 2010. National Research Council. Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1996. Print. Nestle, Marion. One Company. Lots of Patented Seeds. Most of Your Food. The Daily Green. 12 March 2010. Web. 28 Nov 2010. Pandey, A. Genetically modified food: Its uses, future prospects and safety assessments. Science Alert. 21 October 2010. Web. 28 Nov 2010. Pusztai, Arpad. Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?. ActionBioscience. June 2001. Web. 28 Nov 2010. Randerson, James. Genetically-modified Superweeds Ã¢â¬Å"not uncommonÃ¢â¬ . New Scientist. 5 February 2002. Web. 28 Nov 2010. Sustainable Agriculture Network. Clarification on the Prohibition of Genetically Modified Crops. Sustainable Agriculture Network. July 2008. Web. 28 Nov 2010. Weaver, Sean. Ã¢â¬Å"Risks associated with genetic modification: An annotated bibliography of peer reviewed natural science publications. Ã¢â¬ Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 18. 2 (2005):157-189. Print. Whitman, Deborah. Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful?. ProQuest. April 2000. Web. 28 Nov 2010.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Many of us have received a meager education about African-Americans. In fact, many people have no clue about African Americans beyond the information we have been given in the media. The result has been that most whites possess a distorted image of African-Americans. This not only limits a person's worldview, but this is also dangerous. The media has no incentive to present accurate, much less positive, images of African-Americans. This is nothing new, but the inaccuracies have a greater impact on the lives of black people. Throughout history, black men have been presented as beastly savage. For example, in the movie Ã¢â¬Å"Jersey Drive,Ã¢â¬ the blacks are portrayed as a bunch of violent thieves who thrive from stealing othersÃ¢â¬ cars. Often, in the past they were shown as subhuman beings preying on the fragile white woman. With the advent of radio and television, black men were depicted as buffoons and criminals. Today, few images are presented, showing what black men are really like. For instance, Denzel Washington who is a brilliant actor, as well as a successful businessman in todayÃ¢â¬ s society is a great image. Unfortunately, it is easier for most people who are not black to build their assumptions from media depictions rather than to go out and to meet the actual people. These images have contributed to the most violent behavior against black men that this country has ever seen. Over the course of the twentieth century, thousands of black men were lynched for often false rape allegations by white women. Black men have been repeatedly denied access to opportunities for education and employment. To this day, black men remain perceived as a Ã¢â¬Å"threatÃ¢â¬ and are the targets of sometimes fatal acts of police brutality. It is not a coincidence that African American men are imprisoned and given stiffer sentences than their white counterparts. Black men are not the only victims of harmful stereotypes. Black women are perceived as pillars of strength. This is a perception that a number of black women are proud to accept. The black women we see in the media tend to be powerful, nurturing figures. With the exception of a handful of supermodels, black women are often viewed as unattractive by the popular American beauty standards. An overwhelming view of black women is that they are stern, perhaps even domineering. To illustrate, In Ã¢â¬Å"Soul Food,Ã¢â¬ the females are in charge of keeping the family together through all the struggles. These images of black women have led traditional society to ignore the real concerns of black women. Perhaps, they tend to be depicted as superhuman creatures. Black women are seen as being able to withstand any personal tragedy and to emerge totally prepared to face the demands of life. In summation, few of us received educations about African Americans. Throughout history, black men have been presented as beastly. Also, Black women have been perceived as stone walls of strength, powerful, and nurturing figures. Few people take time to see the truth behind these stereotypes. If we really want to know about African Americans, the education that personal interaction and books provide are much more insightful than the mediaÃ¢â¬ s misrepresentations.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Building a Ã¢â¬ËBeauty BrandÃ¢â¬â¢ Veet India Beyond Hair Removal Executive Summary The solution attempts to address the transition of Veet from a hair removal brand to a true beauty brand. Starting with a study of the depilatories market in India and VeetÃ¢â¬â¢s growth over the years to create a platform, the results of the primary research have been presented. The primary research was a combination of questionnaire based research and PAPIs (paper aided personal interviews). The brand awareness of Veet was measured through both recognition and recall of the brand. The salience for the competitor brands like Anne French and Fem were also analyzed. Responses were gathered to identify the preferred usage locations of hair removal products. The product attribute associations, both positive and negative, were measured. An assessment of the brand personality was also undertaken by means of projective market research techniques. A combination of the strong functional values along with the emotional benefits was used to identify the key categories that were suited for brand extension. Elimination of product categories were based on reasoning related to inappropriate associations as well as data on market dynamics achieved from secondary research. Finally, three extensions in two phases have been proposed with a market potential study for each. Highlights of the communication strategies have also been proposed. The recommended strategy aims to initialize the transition of Veet as a true beauty brand in the coming years. Contents Executive Summary2 Introduction3 Hair Removal Market in India3 Veet in India6 Veet Brand Image6 Primary Research amp; Data Analysis7 Research Overview7 Data Analysis8 Brand Equity, Brand Personality amp; Possible Extensions12 Brand Equity12 Brand Personality Model12 PossibLe Extensions13 RoadmaP amp; Positioning16 Brand Extension plan16 Positioning In New Segments17 Conclusion19 Introduction Personal care sector covers segments like hair care, body care, baby care etc. In India this sector is currently valued at around INR 320 billion and is posting robust growth year-on-year. Veet is player in the niche depilatories segment within this market. Hair Removal Market in India Hair Removal or depilatories segment in India is relatively niche segment. It is valued at around INR 4 billion which means its contribution to the personal care market is a modest 1. 27%. While the market size is small the segment has tremendous potential and has been seeing robust growth year on year. As seen above, the segment was a Ã¢â¬Ëlate bloomerÃ¢â¬â¢ showing exponential growth in 2004-05 and in 2006-07. Over the past few years year on year growth has stabilized around 19%. To better understand the nuances of this segment one must look at target consumer segments as well as the competing brands in this space. Brands in Depilatory Segment The brands dominating this segment are: Anne French dominated this category as the first mover and the only player for almost 4 decades. Anne FrenchÃ¢â¬â¢s product positioning was primarily functional showing usage and highlighting product attributes. The entry of Veet in 2004 changed the face of the market with player moving from product centric, functional adverts to emotional benefits. VeetÃ¢â¬â¢s entry and new positioning strategy also explains the 60% y-o-y growth spurt in 2004-05. Currently Veet is the market leader in hair removal creams with a market share of around 34. 1%. Fem is the market challenger with its presence in hair removal creams and bleaching products. Target ConSumer Segments The penetration of hair removal products is relatively low with the young, single, educated and urban women being the prime users. * With a 68% category penetration there is enormous untapped potential in the segment. However this potential can only be realized with category expansion. * Increasing urbanization and more women entering the main stream white collar work force Growth in consumer base is on the cards
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
What makes the United States an exceptional nation - Essay Example No indication of its success is complete without acknowledging that millions, if not billions, of people yearn to see its shores and become Americans themselves. It is a free country. But how did America become so exceptionally free? The answer must be found in its constitution. Compared to any other countries' constitutions, the American one strikes notes of freedom with every word. In its totalizing sense of humanity's place in a polity and it ingenious design, the American Constitution allowed an amazing country to be born out of the ashes of the Revolutionary War. The Constitution is one of the great documents conceived of by men. It is important to understand how a constitution functions in a state. It is a document that describes how a government will function, and, perhaps more importantly, what individual rights cannot be limited by that government. It limits power and therefore prevents tyranny. Countries such as North Korea and Libya may have constitutions, but they are not followed. There the tyrant rules all and no one has any rights whatsoever. In many ways America is an extraordinary conceptÃ¢â¬âa state where the people are in charge. It is important to remember the reason why the Americans revolted against British rule and built their own country. They felt King George III was a tyrant. He refused to listen to the colonists and refused to grant them any autonomy. The men who wrote the Constitution found this to be unacceptable (Mason, 21). They wanted to try a new form of government: one for the people and by the people. Nothing like this had ever been done before. Some of the constitution's great strengths are revealed when compared to another country's constitution. Canada, for example, has a different history than America, and a different constitution. Canadians did not revolt against the British: they were loyalists. Indeed, Queen Elizabeth II is still their head of state. Their ConstitutionÃ¢â¬âthe most important part of which is calle d the Charter of Rights and FreedomsÃ¢â¬âis a nice document but it is much quieter than the American amendments to the Constitution (Tuohy, 39). It is interesting to compare the preamble of both documents. Americans focus on Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness. Canadians on Peace, Order, and Good Government. Those two phrases just about say it all. Both documents have many of the same rightsÃ¢â¬âsuch as the right to free speechÃ¢â¬âbut the Charter has limits. Section 1 of the Charter permits any violation to be excused if it can be justified in a free and democratic society. Section 33 of the Charter permits the government to simply ignore the Charter when it wants to (Greene, 97). Surely, these two excuses are vestiges of Canadians' willingness to listen to authority and accept the word of the King on such matters. The American Constitution has no such limits. One of the greatest things about the American Constitution is the Second Amendment, the right to bear arms. This controversial provision is criticized by some, but ensures that no tyrant can ever impose his power on America (Garvey, 50). Americans have a right to weapons. Weapons are seen as a guarantor of freedom from capricious rule. The Canadian document has no such right. In fact, guns in Canada are severely restricted. Canadians are used to having outsiders, such as the British, dictate what they should do. They meekly accept their orders because that's what their constitution tells them to do. Another interesting difference between the American Constitution and the Charter is section 15 of the latter. This enshrines affirmative action as a protected right. Some people also, appropriately, call affirmative action positive discrimination. In America, people make their way in the world based
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Organizational Analysis paper - Assignment Example The board of directors was however behind the scenes and the principal was the leader. The principal spent most of her time communicating with the parents, students and teachers about issues to do with the vision of the school as well as the policies. She was in charge of calling for faculty meetings in case of any miscommunication, indiscipline cases or other matters concerning the teachers that needed to be passed to the students. Her effective communication skills with the stakeholders of the school led to an increase in funding and donations to the school as a way to appreciate her work. Everything was not always smooth despite the effectiveness of the communication. This was evident in a few cases where there was failure in communication due to various barriers. The most common of these barriers were brought about by channels used to pass the information to the students and teacher as well as other staff in the school which at times proved to be problematic. Most of the time the communication to students was carried through the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s public addresses system that was connected from the principalÃ¢â¬â¢s office to the hallways, classrooms, recreational schools and even the cafeteria. There are times the system failed and especially when there was power blackout as it was not connected to the backup generator. The leadership of the institution was very coordinated based on the fact that the information and decisions came from the board of directors to the principal who carried out the disbursements role very well that the board did not have to worry about finding another channel to pass the news. In fact the effectiveness of the leadership was obvious from the fact that not many people knew about the existence of the board or who were the board members as everyone dealt with the principal. The principal and the deputy principal who were the leaders were not managers but rather servants as well as
Monday, August 26, 2019
The Global Business Environment Meeting Challenges - Essay Example The company presently has a central savoury production unit and an armada of 375 delivery vehicles present throughout the day for ensuring the punctual delivery of the fresh food to the customers. The company also is the leading employer of approximately around 20,000 people and has a future dynamic plan of installing 500 new shops in the near future and generating 6,000 new jobs. The regional bakeries prepare baked food for the daily delivery shops with expert advices and under strict supervision from the skilled bakers from 90 in- store bakeries responsible for the provision of ultimate fresh baked food (Company Overview, n.d.). Growth potential-present scenario The analysts have established the facts with their sophisticated statistical forecasting tools and inferred that around 50% of the population of UK currently is devoid of access to Greggs shops. Thus they state that there is a boosting potential for the establishment of an additional 600 shops in the United Kingdom in the n ext few years (Growing Greggs, n.d.). Fig. 1. Dynamic Growth Potential (Growing Greggs, n.d.) The above diagram depicts the positive and rising growth potential forecasted by the analyst. Focus of the paper The paper emphasizes on the analysis of several factors affecting the financial health of the company initially with the macroeconomic environment analysis with respect to the famous PESTEL analysis and subsequently the microeconomic variables including customers, competitors and collaboration. Having a transparent insight about the factors affecting the company the focus will be shifted on the SWOT analysis in order to analyze the strengths, weaknesses opportunities and threats the company faces with an endeavor to formulate optimal strategies to ensure the forecasted escalating growth potential and reaping huge revenue generation along with the spreading of the reputation of the company to an all new dimension. A short insight on the financial health and performance of the comp any Before entering into the detailed analysis a short glimpse of the financial operations of the company needs to be mentioned. The year 2011 was indeed a challenging year for the company with respect to the economy and the consumers. The performance of the company was noteworthy in 2011 and has maintained the pace of progress towards the attainment of the strategic objectives with the record number of openings of shops across UK as well as investment in two major bakeries in Newcastle and Cumbria. A five period analysis (2006-2010) of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial health with respect to the key performance indicators (although trhere are many four of them are discussed) can be seen from the graphical analysis provided as below: A) Like-for-like sales growth Fig.2 The Like-for-like Sales growth figure (Annual Report & accounts, 2010, p. 18) The variable Like-for-like sales growth performs the comparison of year on year cash sales in the core shops of the company and is not distort ed by the opening or the closure of the shops. The refitted shops are included in the like-for-like comparison unless there have been significant changes in the trading space. The growth of the Like-for-like sales also incorporates the selling price inflation. Year 2009 was a 53 week year affecting the total sales growth for that year and also
Various Methods of Electricity Production - Term Paper Example The pattern of production remains the same for almost all the forms of electricity production. One of the major sources of electricity production which is not environmentally friendly is through coal power plants. (1) Solar and Wind power have low environmental impact, low cost involved and this can be a viable option in rural areas. Solar, hydro and nuclear power are the best options for industrial and rural areas. The start up costs is marginally higher than the traditional methods but the long term benefits are better. (2) The EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s resources are not depleted if electricity is produced from the sunlight as solar energy is a renewable source of energy. There are 2 ways of producing solar energy from the sun: photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies. (3) 30% of the photon energy that comes in contact with the AE resource is being converted into energy in a photovoltaic cell. Silicon will be formed with the help of poly crystalline and the photovoltaic cells. Chemical reactions release electrons when they get in contact with PV cell is in contact with the sunlight. The current produced by these cells are placed in a module which helps in producing huge quantity of power for residential houses and industries. This source of electricity production has higher manufacturing costs in producing solar energy but in the recent times, the construction of photovoltaic has been made cheaper. (3) Another traditional way of producing electricity is to use reflectors and concentrate the sunlight to heat gaseous hydrogen, helium, oil to produce pressurized steam which helps in rotating the turbine and producing electricity. Many residential houses have these central receiver systems with mirrors that reflect sunlight on a large place filled with the fluid which helps in producing energy. (3) Nelson (2001) emphasises that the organic compounds used in the solar cells can be made out of inorganic compounds which will
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Training and Development - Research Paper Example Pascale et al. (1997) argue that the companies excel in the present business environment when a large percentage of employees contemplate deeply about the success of the organization. The feeling motivates employees to take a greater interest in activities of the organization creating increased involvement of the employees in the organization. Dickson (2011) defines employee engagement as a feeling of passion, commitment, and energy that transforms into taking initiative, increased innovation and persistency with the tasks. In a survey carried out by Melcrum, a research and training consultancy firm, it was found that 27 percent of the organizations undertook a dedicated engagement program while 54 percent of the organizations took engagement as a routine philosophy ingrained in overall employee practices. This proves that organizations do recognize the employee engagement as an important ingredient for their success. Bradford (2012) argues that aligning everyone to the organization strategy is critical to achieve what organization has earmarked as its strategic goal in the short as well as long run. Bradford outlines five basic steps to establish employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ alignment with the company strategy. At the outset, employees must be imparted with the conceptual tools so as to have a good strategic thinking about the work. The examples of such tools are training and role models. That is to say, employees must have freedom to make strategic decisions in line with the company's strategy. It is necessary that employees understand the basics of business to see that the strategy is going to make their organization better, enhance their job security and chances of promotions. Without such conceptual tools, it will be difficult to achieve employee engagement. Secondly, employees must have clear understanding about strategy of the organization. Employees aligned with strategy of the organization will have more focused objective before them. Bradford suggests that the best way of aligning employees is to make it their strategy. It is better to involve as many people as possible in
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Health Inequalities in the United Kingdom - Essay Example Today, there is little doubt that health has become an important determinant of the social well being of the people and therefore also of the nation. In simple words, one can define health inequality as the absence of equal health facilities. But the definition of the term Ã¢â¬Ëhealth inequalityÃ¢â¬â¢ is much broad and complex. The theorists link the definition of health inequalities with the social class and social strata. Whitehead, on his celebrated paper Ã¢â¬Å"The Concepts and Principles of Equity in HealthÃ¢â¬ , defined the concept as the differences in health that are avoidable, unfair and unnecessary. Also, he maintained that the concept of health inequality has been a topic of constant debate in Europe (Whitehead, 1992). According to few of the other experts of the field, the equality essentially involve absence of systematic disparities in health among the various social groups that have different social merits or demerits as health inequalities generally affect those who are already in the disadvantageous position in the society (Braveman & Gruskin, 2007). The modern research has proved it time and again that the health inequalities largely depend upon the social classes and social inequalities. It has been observed that more deprived the class, more prevalent is the inequalities in health. Karl Marx, the celebrated Communist theorist had two specific factors in his definition of class. The first is that of objective factors (this defines the relationship of one with the means of production) and the second involves subjective factors (it is the common interest among the members of the society). Max Weber, on the other hand, developed three component theory of stratification with extreme emphasis upon class, status and politics. He thought the relationship between the three factors varies from society to society. Social class and health are closely related. As social class is often associated with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s economic and
Friday, August 23, 2019
Early Post Partum Haemorrhage - Essay Example She was having one of the most serious complications of pregnancy known as post-partum hemorrhage(PPH). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006), hemorrhage, blood clot, high blood pressure, infection, stroke, amniotic fluid in the bloodstream and heart muscle disease are the leading causes of pregnancy-related deaths which sums up to 2-3 pregnancy-related deaths each day. Although deaths due to pregnancy complications have dramatically declined during the period of 1900-1982, the number of cases has ceased to show any decrease since then, which raises so much concern for the women of child bearing age. Furthermore, there seem to be a link between a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s race, ethnicity, country of birth, and age and her risk of dying of pregnancy complications. For example, African American women are four times as prone to pregnancy-related deaths as white women, and that, women aged 35-39 are three times at greater risk than women aged 20-24 years old. The risk goes up to five times for a woman aged 40 and above. Post-partum hemorrhage accounts for a high 17% of m ortality in women, and a case such as this would require a nurse/midwife with the proper knowledge and skills to address the situation and save the mother from an otherwise life-threatening situation. This paper is aimed at exploring the guidelines in the management of early post-partum hemorrhage and the treatments available for such condition. A woman in labor undergoes three different stages. The first stage is dilatation. It begins with the period of true labor contractions and ends with when the cervix is fully dilated. The first stage is further divided into three phases: the latent, the active and the transition phases. A regularly perceived uterine contraction marks the beginning of the latent phase. It ends when the rapid dilation of the cervix begins. In the active phase of labor, the cervix dilates
Thursday, August 22, 2019
The use of beauty in Disney movies Essay Growing up nowadays most children in the US are brought up watching mostly Walt Disney movies. The Millennial generation was raised with the Disney renaissance film era, and the newer Generation Z is also being raised with the classic Disney films and the newer films like Tangled and The Princess and the Frog. As kids grow up, they begin to relate many of the stories and characters that they were so fond of to everyday things, whether it is their toys or Halloween costumes. Along with this is a clear placed biased view on behalf of the Disney corporation that most of the characters that are physically attractive or appealing to look at are going to be the Ã¢â¬Å"good guysÃ¢â¬ , while the less attractive characters are typically the Ã¢â¬Å"bad guysÃ¢â¬ . With this influence over children, it has led to greater stereotyping, body image problems, an ageism debate, and created greed to want to have Disney related memorabilia. These animated children/family based films have caused more controversy than ever expected. In the majority of the Disney films with the main exceptions of The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Beauty and the Beast, there is a clear and definite difference between good and evil within the characters simply by their appearances. In 2010, the University of North Carolina and Appalachian State University carried out a study analyzing twenty-one Disney films made since 1938, and asked the participants to rate 163 characters on a scale of one to ten in terms of Ã¢â¬Å"goodnessÃ¢â¬ . They were asked to also score them on their attractiveness, intelligence, aggressiveness, romantic involvement, and their life outcome aka their Ã¢â¬Å"happily ever afterÃ¢â¬ (Leach). In almost every movie, the Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ characters were the more attractive, more intelligent and less aggressive. Some of the characters that exemplified these ideals were Cinderella, Prince Charming, Princess Aurora, and the Blue Fairy from Pinocchio. This study appeared in the Journal of Applied Social Psychology concluded that, Ã¢â¬Å"as ratings of beauty increased, so did ratings of friendliness, goodness, intelligence, favorability of the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s outcome, and romantic involvementÃ¢â¬ . (Leach) Using this study as reference, researchers then set out to determine how much the idea of beauty is good and ugly is bad, is based off of a specific film. Forty-two children between the ages of six to twelve were put in a different study and had them watch either Cinderella or The Hunchback of Notre Dame. Those two films have both characters that are beautiful and good natured, and also an unconventional hero that is less attractive to the eye. From that researchers then showed the children photographer of other children and were asked what they thought of that person from their looks, and whether they would want to ever to friends with them (Jacobs). Doris Bazzini, Lisa Curtin, Serena Joslin, Shilpa Regan and Denise Martz were the people behind this extensive project. Bazzini and her colleagues were able to conclude that it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter which film the child watched, their answers were all pretty consistent to each other. The researchers were able to pull that the children all had a greater desire to befriend or talk to an attractive peer, rated them as being more desirable to be friends with, less likely to get into any form of trouble, and were seen as being the better person compared to an unattractive peer. These thoughts were not just applied on human characters but also animal ones as well. (Jacobs) Bazzini stated in response to this project, Ã¢â¬Å"It may seem heartening to many parents that a single movie viewing did not induce greater use of the beauty is good stereotype. However, this may be due to the fact that the stereotype [has] inconsistent depictions of the low-beauty bias film are simply not potent enough to unravel a steadily developing propensity to judge attractiveness positively, especially when such stereotypes involve femalesÃ¢â¬ . The researchers then decided to suggest to parents that these movies should be used in aiding the parents as they teach them valuable life lessons in their young age rather than just letting them watch those movies with no dialogue about what they just watched. (Bazzini) Even though these films are animation and not live action, they have created these images of the human body which have led to people striving to look like people who do not exist in real life. The Disney characters are drawn to look and coincide with their roles within the movie; this has led to the Disney Princess Effect. The Walt Disney film corporation has rendered the female leads of their animated motion pictures as archetypes of the perfect female figure. (Travali) This gender/image construction in Disney films is so important because of the messages to sends to the main audience: children. The messages that these characters give to children are how to act, look, and interact with others. While this can be good, the looks part can lead to high expectations and lower realities. (May) The Disney animators have created the heroines to be perfect in their physique. Almost every Disney heroine has a perfect waistline, a perfectly proportioned face, skin tight or even revealing clothing, and those ever so desirable curves that make them wanted by the male characters, or their Prince Charming. These images have become a prime factor in teenage eating disorders and depression because just like Barbie dolls, these unrealistic perfect bodies cannot be actually attained in real life. (Travali) Young girls feel such pressure from the media to look like perfect Barbie dolls, and with the media Disney is a large part since the female heroines all have these perfect bodies. According to the South Carolina Department of Mental Health, anorexia is the third most common chronic illness among girls between the ages of 12 to 25. And even sadder is that the mortality rate associated with anorexia is twelve times higher than the average death rate for young girls for all causes of death. (Growing) Young girls buy outfits to look like their favorite Disney characters, whether it is for Halloween or to wear for fun, and they strive to look just like them. Even young boys feel the need to look like the heroes or Prince Charming, being physically fit and handsome. (Travali) These body image problems start at a young age thanks to the Disney franchise. A vast majority of children with body image problems start young with their exposure to Disney princesses and their perfect bodies, then over time as they see more media and media begins to mold their ideals for the perfect body. (B. P) This has negatively impacted the self-confidence of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth. Growing up on Disney films has created a stereotype of attractive ideals that most youth have come to expect from society and it often lowers their own confidence when they cannot look like the animated characters or cannot find their Ã¢â¬Å"Prince CharmingÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ . (B. P) The Disney Princess franchise has molded many youth throughout the years and never received criticism about ethnic diversity until recently. And even since The Princess and the Frog was released in 2009, there is still criticism about the lack of diversity or from the other end of the spectrum, the bias that an African American princess is not a true Disney Princess. (May) Tiana is much different from the other princesses as she is more independent and has future job orientated goals, but of course has the Disney wish for a prince charming. Tiana was the first new princess since the Disney renaissance of the 90s and the first since Mulan was released in 1998. Disney has tried to create Disney princesses that would reach out to a greater racial audience. Creating princesses like Mulan, Pocahontas, and Tiana, has shown how the Disney Corporation has branched out to fill ethnic diversity. (May) But the Disney franchise is never safe from criticism, they have called out for making the ethnic diverse characters carry too many of the stereotypical features that are associated with their races. From DumboÃ¢â¬â¢s crows to the ear cutting barbarians in Aladdin to the savages in Pocahontas, Disney combined racial stereotyping into their characters. (Bartyzel) Another cause of controversy within the Disney Princess franchise has been transforming old characters into newer, sexier ones. FigureÃ¢â¬â¢s One and Two show the changes that the corporation has implemented. Figure One shows the changes made to characters Mulan and Pocahontas, and Figure Two shows the most controversial change with Merida from the movie Brave. Merida from the movie Brave was a character specifically designed to challenge the Disney princess stereotype, but instead of sticking with this endured hero and her making the movie the eighth top grossing film of 2012, Disney decided to give her the Ã¢â¬Å"princess makeoverÃ¢â¬ and officially coronate her into a Disney Princess. The fiery, rebellious Scottish girl that audiences fell in love with was turned from her wild hair and conservative dress into a hardly recognizable character. Her hair was tamed, her breasts enlarged, a smaller waist, and a more form fitting and revealing dress was part of her becoming a certified Disney princess (Bartyzel). And from this transformation, Disney then decided to give all the princesses a new sexier makeover. In Figure One there is the original Mulan in the center top frame, and on either side of her is the new version. She has gone from a young Chinese woman to a girl with regular features, the only Asian aspects are that her skin is pale and the animators gave her Asian eyes. Pocahontas received lighter skin, an elongated face, larger eyes, and more makeup. But these changes did not go unnoticed by the public. In fact especially over Merida, there was a massive public outrage to the point that Disney released a statement that MeridaÃ¢â¬â¢s makeover was not an official redesign but more of a one-time thing to go with her coronation. Disney was not expecting such a public outcry to these changes and has even lightened MulanÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation having her wearing less makeup and the corporation has made no other references to doing any like that again (Bartyzel). Disney princesses can positively affect children in terms of mentality. Minus the body image problems, the more attractive characters are most of the time the bravest characters and great role models for children. While there are the negative aspects of these super attractive, unrealistic characters, they usually are the good guys and were actually transformed role models for the youth. (Klein) Princesses like Mulan, Merida, and Pocahontas are the heroes in their stories. Mulan showed young girls that they could have strength and protect their families and not be seen as the weaker sex. Merida showed girls that they did not have to conform to the princess ideals and instead be a fierce warrior. And Pocahontas showed there should be peace between people of other cultures and to take time to understand other customs that may be unfamiliar. (Bartyzel) The appearance of the characters affects children more so than adults. Studies about the attractiveness/unattractiveness of animated cartoon characters have shown that with a broad audience including children and adults, that the younger audience is more affected by the physical appearance of said characters in relation to their actions. (Klein) Beautiful people are more superior to those who are not. Psychologists in the early 1970s first thought that, Ã¢â¬Å"highly attractive people were smarter, more socially adept and generally superior to the rest of us, and they tend to live happier livesÃ¢â¬ (Jacobs). This harsh stereotype based on looks learned at an early age, impacts peer interaction. Kids begin to associate good looking people as being the good guys, and less attractive people as being the bad guys. The concept of judging a book by its cover. (Bazzini) Disney movies and the media go hand in hand with the ideals of beauty are good. While the media does not constantly showcase Ã¢â¬Å"beauty is goodÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"ugly is badÃ¢â¬ , in most advertisements, the idea is that sex sells. (Bazzini) The more attractive characters are happier and more apt to live Ã¢â¬Ëhappily ever afterÃ¢â¬â¢. This creates an ideal for youth that the more attractive they are, the more likely they are to find romance and have their own fairy tale endings. The more attractive a character is, the more likely they are to be loving. While there is a clear exception with this with Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and The Hunchback of Notre Dame, this is an accurate portrayal of most characters. (Klein) Research with kids has shown that they will lean more towards an attractive person. Consistent outcomes have shown that kids have Ã¢â¬Å"an overall greater desire to befriend an attractive peer, rate the child as more likely to be desired as a friend by other children, less likely to get into trouble and as nicer relative to an unattractive peerÃ¢â¬ (Jacobs). The beauty is good, ugly is bad stereotype is not only limited to the human animations. Studies show that kids even will view the cute, good animal like Flounder in Little Mermaid as the good guy rather than the big, bulky, mean Gantu in Lilo Stich. (Bazzini) The good is beauty and evil is ugly debate also brings ageism into light. In many Disney movies the older characters are portrayed as being more dependent on others or they are not present whatsoever in some films. (Jamieson) The media does not always support the less attractive characters, even if they are the good guys. DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s PixarÃ¢â¬â¢s film Up, was turned down by investors and toy manufacturers because the main character was a grumpy 78 year old man, who by media standards was not commercially attractive. (Jamieson) Disney portrays characters in a one dimensional manner, and leaving out older characters affects children. In a 2007 study at Brigham Young University at Provo, found that animations could be a leading cause to ageism. The persistent portrayal of elders could lead to children forming the wrong impression of their seniors. (Leach) From the study at Brigham Young University, it looked at 93 characters that appeared to be by definition elderly in 43 Disney films going from Snow White to The Lion King. While the majority of these characters were actually good guys in the movies, the more memorable characters were the bad guys. Characters like the Wicked Queen and Cruella de Vil have been accused of creating a negative image for older people as in numerous films they are the villains. Cruella de Vil is seen as one of DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s most evil character. She is ominous with an unhealthy and frightening interest in the puppies, and has an obsession with their fur in 101 Dalmatians. (Womack) While the movies have good stories of triumph and moral battles, it creates greed. Part of the Disney franchise is to make sure their merchandise sells, and mostly their film merchandise, the need for movie novelties creates greed with young kids. To need to have more and more. (Wynne-Jones) A clear example of this is Bibbidi Bobbidi Boutique at the Disneyland resorts, where girls can be transformed into princesses and boys into princes/knights. This shows the need to look like the film characters and the extremes that the parents will allow their children to go through by paying vast amounts of money to become Ã¢â¬Å"prettyÃ¢â¬ . Parents anywhere up to almost two hundred dollars for their daughter to be turned a Disney princess. These princess packages include anything from simple makeup to an elaborate, fully detailed princess outfit and getting to meet a Disney princess. (Disneyland) The need for Disney related propaganda has sparked discussion of whether Disney is Ã¢â¬Å"exploiting spiritualityÃ¢â¬ to sell its products according to Christopher Jamison, the Abbot of Worth in West Sussex. He brings the point that while the stories in the movies do have a moral message to take away from; it has in turn created an even more materialistic culture. Fr Jamison believes that stories have messages showing good triumphing over evil; he reasons that it is a ruse to convince people that they should buy Disney related products to be like those stories and characters in the films. Films like Sleeping Beauty and 101 Dalmatians have strong moral struggles, and they are also popular in terms of merchandise (Wynne-Jones). Fr Jamison strongly criticizes the Walt Disney Company for their selling tactics of their movie and character products to the public, Ã¢â¬Å"The message behind every movie and book, behind every theme park and T-shirt is that our childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s work needs DisneyÃ¢â¬ . The Walt Disney Company was founded in 1923 and has grown into one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest entertainment companies. To date it owns eleven theme parks around the world, and several television networks. They own networks like ABC, ABC Family, ESPN, ESPN2, and the numerous Disney channels. In addition they have their Hollywood studios that have produced more than two hundred feature films, and have recently purchased Lucasfilm. (Wynne-Jones) While they are entertainment powerhouses, they are now seen as faces of many everyday household items. Disney related items include children foodstuffs like cereal or fruit snacks, to the ever popular Disney related clothing. Almost anything related to infant merchandise has some sort of Disney character on it whether it is clothing to diapers to pacifiers. The public is completely surrounded by the Disney franchise without even realizing it and it has become an engrained part of culture. People will say that these films are a major part of culture and that people are simply reading too far into these films. While this makes sense that it is just people simply overanalyzing these family oriented family films, but these films have truly affected the public in many different ways. The Disney films offer an escape from reality and open the door for imagination for the viewers. But even then the films carry such strong messages that can be taken too literally like to be a princess, one must have their Prince Charming otherwise they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be happy in life. This has led to children having these unrealistic expectations of how their life is going to play out like a fairytale. The Walt Disney Company started out so small in 1923 and has since turned into a multi-billion dollar global franchise. Who would have ever thought that a man making simple animation would turn into a global faucet? The Disney movies and franchise need to be careful and start taking into consideration the criticism about their role in media, society and the lives of the growing generations. They are the future, and they are filled with racial stereotyping, unrealistic body images, ageism, and the firm grip on society of a powerful, global corporation.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
The luncheon Essay A friendly intention of taking an friendout to lunch can result in important situations about oneself not experienced in other events. This comes to the forefront in Somerset W. Maughams anecdotal short story The Luncheon. The young protagonist, a writer, learns he should not be too generous for fear of being taken advantage of after feeling humiliated and angry because he took a pretentious woman out to lunch. The elements of structure, vivid imagery, symbols and style help to develop the acquaintances personality and the protagonists feelings from excitement to anger while also delineating to which extent the protagonists perception of things has changed for his own good. Structure is important to the evolution of the protagonists personal feelings. Initially, the protagonists feels flattered and excited that he has been asked by an older woman to take her out to lunch in one of the fanciest and most expensive restaurants in Paris. Although his financial situation worries him, he wants to please his acquaintance. However, when she begins to order many expensive items, he first worries about how he will pay the bill. Then, he feels humiliated for being used to satisfy her expensive food tastes only. Next, her insensitive discourse angers him: I see that youre in the habit of eating a heavy luncheon. [the protagonist ate only a mutton chop]. Im sure its a mistake. Why dont you follow my example and just eat one thing? Im sure youd feel ever so much better for it. However, he replies sarcastically, I am only going to eat one thing. Finally, the only solution for him is to not care about her and to be as mean to her as she was to him, whenever possible. His final statement shows that he has had his revenge at last Today she weighs twenty one stone. Vivid imagery and symbols help reveal the protagonists feelings and his acquaintances personality. Several times throughout the story, his acquaintance states, I never eat more than one thing for luncheon. The luncheon is symbolic of the concept of the survival of the fittest. On the one hand, his acquaintance possesses a manipulating and insincere personality, while the protagonist is good, kind, and pleasing. As a result, she gets what she wants while the protagonist must pay the price for taking such a person out to lunch because he is a good person. the color white inÃ the image of her white large teeth and French white wines suggests her cold personality (Jobes 1676). The salmon she eats reveals an abundance in the food items she eats (Jobes 1391) pointing to her extravagant personality. The caviar represents her delicate connoisseur tastes (de Vries 89). Even her age she is forty is significant in that a woman is a devil at forty (de Vries 200), so that it can be concluded she possesses a devilish nature. The symbolic number one in the acquaintances ironic statement, I never eat more than one thing for luncheon possesses several qualities evident of her character. It suggests boldness, consciousness and self-centeredness (Jobes 1209). The latter is the most significant because all she cares about is getting the food she wants. By referring to the head waiter as having a priest-like face and a false face, the protagonist emphasizes his anger about his financial means. In essence, the waiter and the acquaintance are performing rituals and acting on behalf of their best interests. The acquaintance pursues eating while the waiter expects a fine tip. Style, too, confirms the acquaintances personality as well as the protagonists illumination. The protagonist, being a down to earth and honest man is not convinced by her contradictory statements and therefore, doesnt care about her. On the other hand, the protagonists style of speaking is sincere and honest even during his angry moments. At the end when the acquaintance says, Never eat more than one thing for luncheon he emotionally releases himself by retorting, Ill eat nothing for dinner tonight! His second release though less stormy, happens when he complacently says, Today she weighs twenty one stone. These statements confirm he is no longer flattered by her. Style, vivid imagery and symbols as well as structure help develop the protagonists initial child-like feelings of flattery and excitement to disgust and anger due to the unfortunate sequence of events causes by his insensitive acquaintance. These elements also create a cold picture of his acquaintances personality. However, as he realizes what is happening to him during the course of events, he matures. The moral implications behind the short story The Luncheon are the thoughtful steps involved when oneÃ commits oneself to taking a stranger out to lunch. Works Cited De Vries, Ad. Dictionary of symbols and Imagery. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co, 1974. Jobes, Gertrude. Dictionary of Mythology Folklore and Symbols. New York: Scarecrow Press, 1962. The Luncheon by W. Somerset Maugham [Maugham, W. Somerset (1977). Collected Short Stories: Volume 1. Penguin Classics, pp. 97-100.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Causes of Parturition in Cattle 1.0 Introduction Parturition in cattle is known to be a complicated physiological process, where the onset is generally accepted to be initiated by the fetus (Thorburn et al., 1977; Thorburn, 1979). In normal circumstances, this complicated process involving several hormonal interactions and should conclude without any human interference, leaving a healthy cow with a vigorous calf. However, in reality a large proportion of calving require assistance to varying degrees that may result in a stillborn calf (Meijering, 1984). Domestication and breeding programmes in the dairy industry select for cows that produce calves that are relatively larger when compared to their dams; a regular occurrence in cattle compared to most other mammals (McClintock, 2004). As dystocia is highly related to the pelvic area (Price and Wiltbank, 1978), being able to measure the pelvic dimensions is beneficial. The process of measuring the internal and external capacity and diameter of the pelvis is known as pelvimetry (Studdert et al., 2011). This is elucidated in studies which reveal that there is value in using external pelvimetry as a predictor for the internal pelvic measurements (Murray et al., 2002), while others show that withers height and heart girth were the best predictors of internal pelvic sizes (Kolkman et al., 2012; Coopman et al., 2003). Hence, it would be easier if the farmer had an alternate method to measure internal pelvic dimensions, such as predicting those dimensions through measurements of external morphometry which could be done directly using measuring tape. Therefore, the ability to accurately determine the possibility of dystocia will allow early and appropriate intervention, which then decreases the morbidity and mortality of t he dam and fetus, improving animal welfare and reducing economic losses (Linden et al., 2009). There is a need for information regarding associations between internal pelvic measurements and external morphometry, which may have value in determining dams with larger pelvic opening that increases calving ease (Bellows et al., 1971). Currently, no research has been done to study the association between the intrapelvic measurements and the external morphometric measurements in Friesian cross cattle in Malaysia. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the relationship between intrapelvic area, morphometric measurements, age, body weight and body condition score in Friesian cross cattle which could be of value in determining dams with larger pelvic openings and thereby reducing the risk of dystocia. It is hypothesized that there is an association between the intrapelvic measurements and external morphometry in Friesian cross cattle. Ã Ã 2.0 Literature Review 2.1 Dystocia Dystocia, defined as delayed or difficult parturition (Mushtaq, 2016), is usually classified into two main causes which are direct factors and indirect factors (Meijering, 1984). The former usually being anatomical and physiological factors such as malpresentation of the calf in the birth canal and uterine torsion in the dam. The latter is related to phenotypic effects that are related to the calf such as calf birth weight, multiple calvings and perinatal mortality, as well as, phenotypic effects associated with the cow such as cow pelvic area, cow body weight at calving, cow body condition score, gestation length and calving assistance. Indirect factors also include non-genetic factors such as cow age, parity of cow, calf sex, nutrition and other disorders, while genetic factors involve cow, bull and calf breeds (Zaborski et al., 2009). The most common cause of dystocia is a physical incompatibility between the size of the foetus and maternal pelvic size, also known as feto-pelvic i ncompatibility. The pelvic size of the dam is mainly influenced by the stage of maturity of the cow. As a result, a smaller size of the pelvis contributes to the higher incidence of dystocia in heifers (Haskell and Barrier, 2014) and vice versa where dams with larger pelvic openings experience less calving difficulty (Barrier et al., 2013). 2.2 Breed Comparisons Several studies have shown that there are significant differences in pelvic dimensions between breeds of beef and dairy cattle (Ramin et al., 1995; Laster 1974; Meijering and Pastma, 1984; McElhenney et al., 1985). There are also differences between herds within breeds, purebreds and crossbreeds, and small breeds and large breeds. The pelvic height and pelvic width increase greatly with advancing age, which shows that the pelvic area is larger in mature cows in comparison to heifers. The mean pelvic heights in beef and dairy heifers can vary from 13.5 cm to 19.3 cm, the pelvic width from 12.6 cm to 18 cm, and the mean pelvic area from 170 cm2 to 290 cm2. 2.3 Impact of Dystocia on Dam The occurrence of dystocia has shown to have an adverse effect on the reproductive performance of dairy cows, where the first oestrus, days open and the calving interval were significantly longer (Gaafar et al., 2010). Fertility is further impaired as a result of dystocia as it causes a reduction in conception rate and an increase in the number of services per conception (Lopez de Maturana et al., 2007). Total milk yield also tends to be lower in cows that have experienced dystocia at calving compared to those that calved normally (Berry et al., 2007). Furthermore, there is a significant increase in the mortality rate of cows experiencing dystocia in comparison to those that calved without assistance and the number is highest in cows that require serious intervention during parturition (Dematawewa and Berger, 1997). 2.4 Impact of Dystocia on Calf Majority of stillbirths were reported to be a direct result of dystocia (Meyer et al., 2000; Lombard et al., 2007). During parturition, there are several dramatic physiological changes that can have adverse effects on the foetal oxygen concentration (Lombard and Garry, 2013). The foetus can experience neonatal asphyxia during the calving process due to hypoxia, decreased blood flow as a result of occlusions of the placenta, or ischaemia. Hypoxia can progress to anoxia, which can be prolonged with instances of dystocia resulting in foetal death (Bluel et al., 2008). The calf can also have hypercapnia, which can cause respiratory acidosis. However, during dystocia the respiratory acidosis will be pronounced and in addition to this, the hypoxia can lead to anaerobic metabolism within the body that results in metabolic acidosis. The acidotic condition of the foetus can negatively affect the central nervous system resulting in lowered vigour, depression and decreased physical activity, wh ich is referred to as weak calf syndrome or dummy calf syndrome (Ravary-PlumioÃ «n, 2009). The dystocic calves were slower to express most of the neonatal behaviours, particularly those that lead up to reaching the udder, and usually lay recumbent (Barrier et al., 2012). This results in the failure of transfer of passive immunity as the calf is unable to absorb an adequate quantity of colostrum (Johnson et al., 2007; Weaver et al., 2000). This has been linked with an increase in calf morbidity and mortality and a reduction in the calf growth rate (Robison et al., 1988; Donovan et al., 1998). 2.5 Economic Impacts In a United Kingdom dairy herd, the total cost of a slightly difficult calving was estimated to be roughly Ã £110, while a more serious difficult calving can range from Ã £350 to Ã £400. This takes into account the labour and veterinary costs, including the cost of caesarean deliveries, the mortality of dams and calves and the culled cows, the losses incurred due to a decreased milk production and poor reproductive performance (McGuirk et al., 2007). In Australian Friesian Holstein herds, the cost of dystocia for a herd can go up to $5100 per year, where 30% of the losses is due to reduced fertility, 20% due to culling or dam death, veterinary costs were about 10% and labour costs were 20%. The cost of dystocia in primiparous cows was about $48.49, while it was $19.15 in mature cows. The overall losses associated with calving difficulties in the Australian dairy industry can be estimated to be in excess of $44 million annually (McClintook, 2004). In a study by Dematewewa Berger ( 1997), the estimated costs of dystocia were $0.00, $50.45, $96.48, $159.82 and $379.61 for dystocia scores 1 to 5 (1 representing no problem to 5 representing extreme difficulty). which showed that losses incurred increase as the difficulty of calving increases. 2.6 Pelvimetry Internal pelvimetry involves the measurement of the pelvic height and the pelvic width, which allows the pelvic area to be determined (Rice and Wiltbank, 1972; Bellows et al., 1971; Morrison et al., 1986; Johnson et al., 1988). The internal dimensions are measured using a sliding calliper device that is referred to as a Rice pelvimeter. Other instruments have also been developed such as the Krautmann-Litton Bovine pelvic meter and the EquiBov Bovine pelvimeter (Deutscher, 1987). The external pelvimetry is mostly done in correlation to the internal pelvic dimensions where the measurements are taken on the external body of the animal; for example, the pin width, hook width, rump length and hook to pin length (Bellows et al., 1971; Johnson et al., 1988; Coopman et al., 2003). Pelvimetry is a relatively simple and reliable method to determine pelvic parameters of cows with the basis that the larger the pelvic area, the lower the calving difficulty. However, a farmer would require the ser vices of a veterinarian with the skills and knowledge to peform this technique, which would increase costs to the farm (Kolkman et al., 2012). 2.7 Welfare The measurement of internal pelvic parameters is invasive and carries a risk of trauma to the rectal mucosa. It has been recommended to administer epidural anaesthesia which allows the cow to stand normally without arching her back or attempting to strain. However, the administration of the epidural anaesthesia requires specialised veterinary training (Murray et al., 2002). Despite the risk for injury, if the internal pelvimetry is done properly and gently with the use of adequate quantities of lubrication, damage to the rectal mucosa can be prevented (Hiew and Constable, 2015). 3.0 Materials and Methods Data was collected from 50 Friesian cross dairy cattle (23 from Ladang 16, Taman Pertanian Universiti (TPU), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) and 27 others from two dairy cattle farms in Bangi, Selangor and Lenggeng, Negeri Sembilan that were part of the Ladang Angkat Programme) within a period of 2 weeks using convenience sampling. All of the cows were between 2-14 years of age and weighed between 200-750 kg. The ages of the cows at TPU were taken from recrodsm, whereas the ages of the other cattle were determined using dentition (Lawrence et al., 2001). This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), with the reference number: UPM/IACUC/FYP.2016/FPV.71 The external morphometry that was measured was the thoracic circumference, abdominal circumference, hook width and pin width. Thoracic circumference (Figure 1) was determined using a measuring tape (tailor fibreglass measuring tape) placed immediately caudal to the scapula and forelimbs. The abdominal circumference (Figure 2) was determined by placing the same tape tape cranial to the hind limbs, tuber coxae and udder, and was measured in centimetres (West, 1997) (Figure 3). The hook width (Figure 4) was measured using the linear distance between the most lateral surfaces of the wings of the ileum or tuber coxae. The pin width (Figure 5) is the linear distance between the most lateral surfaces of the tuber ischium (Singh et al., 1984) (Figure 6). These distances were measured in centimetres using straight rulers and a tape measure whereby one straight metal ruler was placed vertically at the lateral aspect of the tuber coxarum or tuber ischium and the other straight metal ruler was p laced vertically at the lateral aspect of the opposite tuberosity with the measuring tape stretched tautly between the two rulers (Craig, 1941). The body condition score was measured using a 5-point scoring method with quarter-point increments from an established scoring system from Elanco Animal Health (1997). The body weight was determined by measuring the thoracic circumference using a calibrated heart girth tape[MH1], in kilograms. Figure 3: External morphometry; a. Thoracic circumference, b. Abdominal circumference (Elanco Animal Health, 1997) Figure 4: Measuring the distance between the tuber coxae Figure 5: measuring the distance between the tuber ischii Figure 6: External morphometry; a. The distance between tuber coxae, b. The distance between tuber ischii (Elanco Animal Health, 1997) The internal pelvimetry was measured using a Rice pelvimeter (Lane Manufacturing Inc., Colorado, U.S.A.) (Figure 3) that provides measurements in centimetres with a gradient of 0.25 cm. Faeces were manually evacuated from the rectum and the pelvimeter was well lubricated using an aqueous based lubricant (BOVIVET Gel granulate). The closed pelvimeter was gently and slowly introduced into the rectum in a closed position by the hand, with the arm of the investigator protected using a disposable rectal sleeve (KRUTEX super sensitive disposable examination gloves) The pelvic height (Figure 4) was measured by opening the device within the pelvic canal and recording the distance between the dorsal aspect of the pubic symphysis on the floor of the pelvis and the ventral aspect of the sacral vertebrae. The pelvimeter was then closed and rotated 90Ã ° to measure the pelvic width, (Figure 5) which is defined as the horizontal distance at the widest point between the left and right ileal shafts at right angle to where the height was measured (Bellows et al., 1971). One limitation of the Rice pelvimeter is that it has a maximum reading of 20 cm, but in this study none of the cows had pelvic measurements that exceeded 20 cm. The intrapelvic area was calculated as the area of a rectangle by multiplying the pelvic width and the pelvic height (Gaines et al., 1993; Ramin et al., 1995; Green et al., 1988). The intrapelvic area can also be measured as an ellipse with the equation PA = PH ÃÆ'- PW ÃÆ'- Ã Ã¢â ¬/4 (David, 1960). Despite the higher degree of accuracy offered by the ellipsoidal equation, the rectangle equation was used for calculation because the ellipsoidal equation offered no advantage of predicting the risk of dystocia and did not differ when ranking pelvic size (Rice and Wiltbank, 1972). All measurements taken were measured three times consecutively by the same person and the resulting mean values were used for analyses. Data was placed on a data capture sheet for each farm, and transferred to an Excel spread sheet (Microsoft Office Excel, 2016). The data was then analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22. Data was expressed as mean Ã ± standard deviation. Shapiro-Wilk test was used as a numerical means of assessing normality, and the output of a normal Q-Q plot was used to determine this graphically. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the relationship of age categories (2 3 years, 3 4 years, 4 5 years, 5 6 years and > 6 years) on the external morphometry and internal pelvic measurements. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) was used to determine the association between internal pelvic dimensions and external morphometry, age, body weight and body condition score. Regression analysis was performed to determine the ability of external morphometry, age, body weight and body condition score to predict internal pelvic dimensions. The data collected were used to develop multiple regression equations that estimate the inner pelvic sizes from the external measurements. 4.0 Results The descriptive statistics for age, body weight, body condition score, external morphometry and internal pelvic measurements for the 50 Friesian cross cows are given in Table 1. Table 1: Age, body condition score, body weight, external morphometry and internal pelvic measurements for 50 Friesian cross cattle. Trait Minimum Maximum Mean S.E. S.D. Median Age (months) 24.00 165.00 60.16 4.17 29.16 54.00 Body condition score (1-5) 2.50 4.00 3.21 0.05 0.36 3.25 Body weight (kg) 277.3 722.7 456.9 14.0 98.7 437.8 Thoracic circumference (cm) 151.5 206.2 177.0 1.8 12.4 175.9 Abdominal circumference (cm) 152.0 227.8 189.2 2.2 15.8 189.4 Distance between tuber coxae (cm) 38.3 57.2 47.5 0.6 4.4 47.7 Distance between tuber ischae (cm) 20.0 45.6 31.5 0.8 5.7 31.8 Pelvic height (cm) 12.42 19.50 16.64 0.22 1.59 17.13 Pelvic width (cm) 11.67 19.08 15.64 0.24 1.69 15.50 Pelvic area (cm2) 158.31 398.86 263.28 7.21 51.02 262.43 There was no significant difference between the mean pelvic area of the cows sampled and the minimum pelvic size of Friesian-Holsteins that was determined to have a low incidence of dystocia, where cows which had pelvic sizes greater than the determined value ofÃ 260 cm2 would have a reduced risk of dystocia (Hoffman et al., 1996). The mean pelvic size of the sampled cows was 3.28 cm2 larger than the determined value of 260 cm2. In this sample, 24 cows out of the 50 (48%) had pelvic areas below 260 cm2, with the smallest pelvic area being 158.31 cm2. 4.1 Analysis of variance (ANOVA) The analysis of variance showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the age and: thoracic circumference (P = 0.008), abdominal circumference (P = 0.046), distance between tuber coxae (P = 0.046) and distance between tuber ischii (P = 0.009). However, there was no difference when it came to pelvic height, pelvic width and pelvic area (P > 0.05) amongst the age categories. The post-hoc comparisons using the Tukey HSD test gave indications that the means for thoracic circumference was lower for the age categories 2 Ã 3 years (170.1 Ã ± 10.7 cm, P = 0.021), 3 4 years (172.4 Ã ± 12.4 cm, P = 0.017) compared to the category > 6 years (189.4 Ã ± 12.9 cm). There was a significant difference (P = 0.034) for abdominal circumference when comparing age category 4 5 years (180 Ã ± 13.3 cm) to > 6 years (201.6 Ã ± 15.3 cm). 4.2 Pearsons Product-Moment Correlation Table 2 illustrates the correlations between the external morphometry and internal pelvic dimensions, using Pearsons Product-Moment Correlation. This reveals that the external morphometric parameters of thoracic circumference, abdominal circumference, distance between tuber coxae, and distance between tuber ischii have a moderately, positive correlation with the internal pelvic measurements of pelvic height, pelvic width and pelvic area that were statistically significant (P = 0.01). Age in months had a weak and positive correlation with pelvic height (r = 0.35) and pelvic area (r = 0.29) at the level of P = 0.05. However, there was no correlation between age and pelvic width (r = 0.25, P = 0.86). Table 2: Correlations between the external morphometry and internal pelvic parameters. Traits Pelvic Height Pelvic Width Pelvic Area Thoracic circumference 0.50** 0.53** 0.48** Abdominal circumference 0.60** 0.52** 0.52** Distance between tuber coxae 0.46** 0.49** 0.43** Distance between tuber ischae 0.47** 0.54** 0.50** ** Correlation coefficient (r) is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) Body weight (kg) showed a moderate positive correlation with pelvic height (r = 0.40), pelvic width (r = 0.50) and pelvic area (r = 0.44) at a level of P = 0.01. Body weight also displayed a very strong positive correlation with: thoracic circumference (r = 0.99), abdominal circumference (r = 0.76), distance between tuber coxae (r = 0.77) and the distance between tuber ischae (r = 0.73) at a level of P = 0.01. There were no correlations between the intrapelvic height (r = 0.11, P = 0.55), intrapelvic width (r = -0.10, P = 0.47) and intrapelvic area (r = -0.08, P = 0.60)and the body condition score (-0.104 . There were positive correlations between age in months and thoracic circumference, abdominal circumference, distance between the tuber coxae and distance between tuber ischii, all of which are significant at the level of P = 0.01 (Table 3). There is also a significant correlation between age in months and the body weight (r = 0.58, P Table 3: Correlations between the age (months) and external morphometry in 50 Friesian cross cattle. Age (months) with Correlation P-value Thoracic circumference 0.56 Abdominal circumference 0.48 Distance between tuber coxae 0.45 Distance between tuber ischae 0.63 The correlations between the external morphometry measurements are given in Table 4. There is significant, strong and positive correlation between each of the external morphometric measurements that were taken, where P Table 4 Correlations between the external morphometry of 50 Friesian cross cattle. Traits Thoracic circumference Abdominal circumference Distance between tuber coxae Thoracic circumference Abdominal circumference 0.76** Distance between tuber coxae 0.78** 0.72** Distance between tuber ischae 0.72** 0.64** 0.77** ** Correlation coefficient (r) is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) 4.3 Regression analysis Several models were developed using linear and multiple regression analyses, which can be used to predict internal pelvic parameters using the external morphometric measurements that are given in Table 5. The best predictors for pelvic height would be body weight and the external parameters of thoracic circumference and abdominal circumference, where these parameters explain 58% of the variability of pelvic height. For pelvic width, the ideal predictor would be the distance between the tuber ischii which explains 29% of the variability of the pelvic width. Body weight, thoracic circumference and the distance between tuber ischii were the best predictors for pelvic area where they explain 40% of the variability of the pelvic area. Table 5 Models to predict inner pelvic sizes from easily accessible external morphometry Y Model R2 S.E. Pelvic Height Y = -50.57 0.06 ÃÆ'- BW + 0.47 ÃÆ'- Th + 0.05 ÃÆ'- Abd 0.58 1.13 Y = -48.90 0.05 ÃÆ'- BW + 0.52 ÃÆ'- Th 0.40 1.25 Y = 5.13 + 0.06 ÃÆ'- Abd 0.37 1.38 Pelvic Width Y = 6.74 + 0.19 ÃÆ'- TcTc 0.24 1.49 Y = 10.61 + 0.16 ÃÆ'- TiTi 0.29 1.45 Pelvic Area Y = -1549.01 1.54 ÃÆ'- BW + 14.22 ÃÆ'- Th 0.33 42.51 Y = 1585.33 1.56 ÃÆ'- BW + 13.22 ÃÆ'- Th + 1.17 ÃÆ'- Abd 0.39 41.15
Self-employment in Do the Right Thing Self-employment is often confused with capitalism. This is because the word capitalism has come to mean "free markets" and "free enterprise," rather than a specific type of economic system. However, the conflation of the term capitalism with these other terms reduces the concepts available for doing social scientific analysis. We need to be able to identify the traditional capitalist system: a system based on free wage labor creating products that are owned by capitalist directors who are distinct from these original wage laborers. Self-employment is then distinct from this capitalist economic system precisely because it is based on free independent labor creating products that are owned by the individual direct producers. In other words, a self-employed laborer is very different from a capitalist laborer. This difference is, without question, of great consequence and worthy of social scientific analysis. Most past conceptions of the self-employed direct producers have regarded this unique economic system as of only minor importance (if even that) in a world dominated by feudalism and/or capitalism. However, historically self-employment has played an important role in many societies, including the United States, and continues to do so today. The relative prevalence and particular types of self-employment in society influences other social processes, including political processes, cultural processes, and individual psychology. In a society where self-employment exists, it is simply not possible to adequately understand and explain social change in the absence of a concept of self-employment (and a concept that is clearly distinct from other types of production and distributio... ... way that is very different from the relationship between producer and product in other class processes. It is, therefore, all the more tragic in the film when the pizzeria is destroyed. It is not simply the destruction of a work place, but the destruction of Sal's identity as a self-employed producer (although this identity can, persumably, be resurrected in a new structure). For Mookie this is better than harm having been done to Sal, the person, and this is why he redirects the hatred of the crowd away from Sal and his sons to the building. But for Sal, it is difficult to take a great deal of solace in this diversion (although in the end, he seems to harbor no ill will towards Mookie, perhaps because he understands the context in which Mookie threw the garbage can through the pizzeria window) because some essential aspect of his identity has been destroyed.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Based upon 30 years of marketing research experience, spanning thousands of research projects, I am convinced that product testing is the single most valuable marketing research that most companies ever do. The great value of product testing is, perhaps, best illustrated by some of its many uses. It can be used to: Ãâ¢ Achieve product superiority over competitive products. Ãâ¢ Continuously improve product performance and customer satisfaction (i.e., to maintain product superiority, especially as consumer tastes evolve over time). Ãâ¢ Monitor the potential threat levels posed by competitive products to understand competitive strengths and weaknesses. Ãâ¢ Cost-reduce product formulations and/or processing methods, while maintaining product superiority. Ãâ¢ Measure the effects of aging upon product quality (shelf-life studies). Ãâ¢ Implicitly measure the effects of price, brand name, or packaging upon perceived product performance/ quality. Ãâ¢ Provide guidance to research and development in creating new products or upgrading existing products. Ãâ¢ Monitor product quality from different factories, through different channels of distribution, and from year to year. Ãâ¢ Predict consumer acceptance of new products. Companies committed to rigorous product testing and continuous product improvement can, in most instances, achieve product superiority over their competitors. Product superiority, in turn, helps strengthen brand share, magnifies the positive effects of all marketing activities (advertising, promotion, selling, etc.), and often allows the superior product to command a premium price relative to competitors. Most companies, unfortunately, do very little product testing. Few companies really u... ...he structure and mechanics of execution will vary greatly from product category to product category. For example, computer software can be tested, furniture can be tested, store environments can be tested, dog food can be tested, airline service can be tested, equipment prototypes can be tested, etc. Competitive Advantage The ultimate benefit of product testing is competitive advantage. Product superiority is the surest way to dominate a product category or an industry. Companies dedicated to ongoing product improvement and product testing can achieve product superiority, and achieve a competitive advantage of great strategic significance. Companies that ignore product improvement and product testing, on the other hand, may wake up one morning to find themselves on the brink of extinction from a competitor who has built "a better mousetrap."
Sunday, August 18, 2019
The Question of Non-Human Intelligence Human beings have long assumed that they were at the pinnacle of the evolutionary pyramid thanks mainly to their more complex brain. They believe that this advanced brain makes them not just more intelligent but categorically different from all other organisms. Recent advances in the fields of neurobiology and anatomy have begun to chisel away at this most scared of human assumptions and demonstrate that human brains, and the intelligence associated with them, are not categorically different than other animals. Instead the research indicates that intelligence is on a continuum from "lower" animals to "higher" ones. These findings led to new fields of research which sought to gain a better understanding of intelligence and its evolution by comparing the behaviors and the brains of various organisms. Despite existing for many years and being supported by researchers in fields as varied as biology and linguistics there have been nearly as many steps backward as there have been forward. The central dilemma in studying intelligence is to come up with a universally acceptable definition of intelligence. Many researchers define intelligence as the ability to use language and create tools to manipulate the environment. While this definition may seem fairly logical, especially because humans seem to be the axiomatic example for this definition, many researchers argues that its anthropocentric nature is too limiting. By placing parameters on intelligence which only humans meet, and lower primates fit to varying degrees, it is inherently impossible to find "intelligence" in any other species. A second problem with this humanist definition of intelligence is that it is based largely on human introspection and the knowledge that we are conscious, rational, linguistic animals(1). Kenneth Marable argues "if the same criterion that are used to rule out non-human intelligence were applied to humans without the benefit of introspection, we would doubt even our own intelligence"(1 ). One of the first goals of inter-species intelligence studies was to create a quantitative scale to measure the intelligence of animals. Since the administration of IQ test to many different species seemed illogical, researchers turned to using scales which compared the size of an animal's brain to the size of its body; this value was known as the Encephalization Quotient. The Encephalization Quotient (EQ) "allows researchers to ask the question: 'Is the brain of a given species bigger or smaller than would be expected, compared with that of other animals its size?
Saturday, August 17, 2019
During the 1800's, Americans in the North and South often had conflict but could no longer resolve their political disputes through compromise by the year 1860. In this time period, compromise was not an option because slavery and states rights' caused political disputes between the north and south. The two political parties in the north and south lost their ability to cooperate and by the mid 1800's increased the issue of the division of the states.The North and South in the nineteenth century were different in lifestyle and morale as well as economy. The north had a booming industrial economy while in the South, cotton was the major economic leader. Because of this congress was continuously addressing controversial matters and providing answers that did not satisfy either one side or both. The early 1800s were full of the North and the South making many attempts at reconciliation that just fell short. Among those were the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and the Great Compromise of 1850 .Other attempts led to the Tariff/Nullification Controversy, anti slavery debates in congress, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Whether it was one side or the other there was always someone to oppose or defy the other side. Laws put in place eventually led to the succession of the southern states and the Civil War.The issue of slavery became an even greater concern when the Louisiana Purchase territories were to enter the Union as states. The question was, would new territories enter the Union as slave or free states? The South wanted a balance of power. They knew that if the North were to have more free states, then slavery in the south could be facing extinction through congress.In an attempt to conciliate with the South, the North agreed upon the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Through this slavery was banned above the 36 degrees 30 minute line and Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine a free state. For a while, it retained the balance of power. However, tempers in the south rose again later in the 1820s over high tariffs. The tariffs benefited the north but threatened southern cotton exports. In 1828 the tariff was around 50%. President Jackson modified it to around 33% in 1832 only to have South Carolina nullify it in the state. It raised the questionÃ of whether or not the federal government could legally impose protective tariffs and whether it was constitutional for a state to nullify a federal lawThe political view on slavery and states rights grew as compromise between the north and south political parties began to collapse during the mid 19th century. Henry Clay stated that it is impossible for South Carolina to become an independent state. A report of the American Anti-Slavery Society was opposed to slavery naming slave owners as Ã¢â¬Å"man stealersÃ¢â¬ and believed that slaves should be free. Political compromise was not greatly effected by their belief but the Compromise of 1850 resulted in the Fugitive Slave Law being passed which caused the collapse in the political parties.The issue of slavery continued to increase as compromise slowly disintegrated. Abolitionism increased by the encouragement of Frederick Douglass, a leader, who promoted freedom for all slaves. Also, Ã¢â¬Å"Uncle Toms CabinÃ¢â¬ published by Harriet Beecher started up abolitionism in the North while the South to oppose against abolitionists. Senator Daniel Webster who is opposed to secession stated that the North is not complied with the Fugitive Slave Law. In addition, a New York Tribune comparing working class men in the north to southern gentlemen caused more conflict between the states over the issue of slavery. The division of the states over the issue of slavery enhanced the collapse of compromise between the North and South political parties.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Time to become an adult has come. Having an independent life has some happy and difficult moments. However, these situations improve our life in several enriching ways. At this point in the life we have to define our goals and start working for them. When we become an adult we have two choices, and you can choose the one that could take you to the top, or you can take the easiest one and be just another person of the common people. On December first 2012, I arrived to New York State. At my 20 years old, I had to leave my homeland and I was responsible for my life and my own decisions everything was new for me. It was like jumping into the water not knowing how to swim. Now, I am working with my uncle in his own business, I never thought that I am going to be involved in this kind of business. Read more: Future plan essay We sell and repair cars. I learned as fast as I could and now I can say that I have some knowledge about cars. On the other hand, I am attending at college; I want to get in the business major but I am still taking ESL classes because every day as a foreign student I need to learn more English as I can. I feel glad that I can speak English and understand it more than before this way I can accomplish my goal which is finish my education in other language, in a other country and by my own effort. To finish my short introduction, I would like to emphasize that this is one of the most significant experiences of my life because I have learned how import is our family and sometimes we do not appreciate that when they are with us. I am growing as a person and as a professional, but I know all of this effort that I am making it worth. I hope that I can accomplish all my goals that I have I my mind ,but I know that I will with the GodÃ¢â¬â¢s blessing we can do whatever we want.