Tuesday, December 24, 2019

The Relationships Between Scope Definition and Time...

Running head: THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SCOPE DEFINITION AND TIME The Relationships Between Scope Definition and Time Management The relationships between scope definition and time management have as many similarities as they do differences. Scope definition basically, is knowing exactly what needs to be accomplished. This is the first step in accurately forecasting and controlling cost and schedule, which ties into time management. Using quantity surveys performed on a periodic basis are the foundation of determining what has been accomplished and is crucial to cost and schedule control. By measuring exact installed quantities, the scope can accurately determine a true physical percent complete, measure progress, and determine†¦show more content†¦These are just some of the ideas behind the scope definition of a project that should be paid attention to while implementing a project. Time Management Time management when broken up in to two parts time is defined as the measured or measurable period during which an action, process or condition exists or continues. (Mish p. 1235) Management is defined as the conducting or supervising of something. (Mish p. 722) So when both are combined the definition can be made that time management is the conducting or supervising of a measurable period during which an action process or condition exists or continues. In usual schooling, children are taught their entire lives on how to manage time properly. This is because in the real world or the working world time management plays a huge part in all of our lives. From getting to work on time in the morning by managing our sleep time and waking up on time, to completing our daily tasks in and out of the office to allow time for all of the other tasks we must accomplish before we lay our heads down to go to sleep again. In project management, project managers are dealing with the exact same concep ts. A project manager must be able to schedule portions of the project to be completed by certain deadlines that have been set byShow MoreRelatedEssay: the Importance of Planning Project Boundaries1707 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction: â€Å"Project management is a series of activities embodied in a process of getting things done† (Cleland, 2007, p.51). What stages would be involved on defining the ‘series of activities’ and what needs to be ‘done’? Would a complete definition of the project and its boundaries be directly linked to the project success? This essay will critically analyze the following statement: â€Å"The First step in making project management work must be a complete definition of the boundaries acrossRead MoreCIS 348 ASSIGNMENT 1970 Words   |  4 Pagesof management required to produce each of the deliverables described are low-level management, middle-level management, and top-level management. 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Monday, December 16, 2019

Description of the educational system in Egypt Free Essays

The intent of this chapter is to give the reader a general position of the context in which the survey is conducted. The chapter will travel, from planetary to specific, by giving a general description of the educational system in Egypt runing from its doctrine, structuring and finance to curriculum planning, design and development. Emphasis will be given to English linguistic communication instruction ; its purposes, and manner of development. We will write a custom essay sample on Description of the educational system in Egypt or any similar topic only for you Order Now A farther point about higher instruction: current state of affairs and national reform is highlighted. Finally, EFL teacher developing programme, the function of CDELT in accomplishing national ends are brought into focal point for its importance to the whole intent of the probe. 2.1 Country profile The Arab Republic of Egypt lies in the north eastern portion of Africa and Sinai Peninsula in the western portion of Asia. It is about one million square kilometers in size. The population of Egypt was estimated in 2008 as 75,175,062 harmonizing to the Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics in Egypt. ( Said A ; Mourad, 2008 ) . 2.2 The nature and doctrine of instruction in Egypt Egypt ‘s instruction system is the largest in the Mena part and among the largest systems in the universe. As of 1999-2000, the system reported an registration of about 16 million, of which 7 million are in primary instruction, 4 million in preparative instruction, 3 million in secondary instruction, and over 1.8 million in third instruction. The system besides employs the largest figure of civil retainers in Egypt about 3.8 million employees ( The World Bank, 2007 ) . Some negative features of the Egyptian educational system include what Hargreaves ( 1997 ) termed â€Å" a additive consolidative merger † ; instructors with low degrees both in the cognition of the capable affair and in teaching method ; a mismatch between course of studies and curricula drawn at the cardinal national degree and the existent instruction larning state of affairs ; ritualisation, and mechanistic acquisition and learning methods. Other negative characteristics include: examination-driven direction, politicisation, bureaucratism that hinders the accomplishment of indispensable marks behind schooling, limited resources, centralization, and mal-distribution of educational services amongst the province parts ( Jarrar A ; Massialas, 1992 ) . Many of the defects of the educational system, and so its failure to convey about effectual long-run reform, have been due to its being extremely centralised, in malice of efforts at decentralization. The system is really hierarchal, with the Ministry of Higher Education ( MOE ) at the top of the pyramid. The system is based on senior status instead than virtue. Due to its extremely centralised and bureaucratic nature, the educational system defines and predetermines what is to be taught, how it is to be taught, the functions of instructors and scholars, every bit good as the intended results of the educational procedure. Given this character, the Egyptian educational system is about imperviable to influences and enterprises from instructors, parents and scholars ( Gahin, 2001 ) . Egyptian instruction has been portrayed. harmonizing to ( Hargreaves, 1997 ) as â€Å" undemocratic † , â€Å" teacher-centred ‘ , â€Å" autocratic † ‘ and â€Å" extremely competitory † . Students ‘ greatest concern is to hive away and keep information so that when it is needed, they pour it out in the test which is held to prove their grounds of larning. Their exam tonss are the exclusive standards for pupils ‘ success. 2.3 Higher Education System in Egypt Egypt has a really extended higher instruction system. About 30 % of all Egyptians in the relevant age group go to university. However, merely half of them alumnus. The Ministry of Higher Education supervises the third degree of instruction. There are a figure of universities providing to pupils in diverse Fieldss. In the current instruction system, there are 17 public universities, 51 public non-university establishments, 16 private universities and 89 private higher establishments. The higher instruction cohort is expected to increase by close to 6 per centum ( 60,000 ) pupils per annum through 2009. ( Higher Education in Egypt: Reappraisals of National Policies for Education, 2010 ) In 1990, a statute law was passed to supply greater liberty to the universities. But still the instruction substructure, equipment and human resources are non in topographic point to provide to the lifting higher instruction pupils. But at that place has non been a similar addition in passing on bettering the higher instruction system in footings of debut of new plans and engineerings. Both at national degree ( inspection systems, scrutinies ) and at local degree ( school degree pupil appraisals ) steps of the success of instruction schemes and the public presentation of the system are weak. ( Ginsburb A ; Megahed, 2009 ) Although higher instruction was founded much earlier in Egypt before it appeared in Europe ( Metcalfe, 2008 ) , The Government of Egypt recognizes that there are still existent challenges to be faced in the sector, foremost amongst which are the demand to significantly better sector administration and efficiency, increase institutional liberty, significantly better the quality and relevancy of higher instruction plans, and maintain coverage at bing degrees. Recent Government actions to construct political consensus on issues critical to reform hold created a clime that is mature for alteration. The Ministry of Higher Education ( MOHE ) acts as a title-holder for reform. The Minister, appointed in 1997, rapidly established a commission for the reform of higher instruction known as the Higher Education Enhancement Programme ( HEEP ) Committee which drew in a broad scope of stakeholders including industrialists and Parliamentarians. A National Conference on higher instruction reform was held in February 2000, and a Declaration for action emanating from the Conference was endorsed by the President and the Prime Minister. The Declaration identified 25 specific reform enterprises. Due to the dynamic nature of the reform scheme, which entails reconsidering precedences for each period, a Strategic Planning Unit ( SPU ) was established for the MOHE to guarantee the sustainability of planning and undertaking monitoring during the three stages and for future 1s. A Students ‘ Activity Project ( SAP ) was besides initiated as portion of plan accreditation similar to scientific research and station alumnus surveies. 2.3.1 Egyptian universities: Universities in Egypt are by and large either state-funded or in private funded. Education in Egypt is free by jurisprudence, nevertheless there are really little fees paid for registration. Public establishments, with few exclusions are by and large overcrowded with a pupil organic structure of several 1000s. Private universities are either Egyptian or foreign, and normally have a much smaller pupil organic structure and with a much higher tuition rates. Public Universities Public universities are under authorities disposal. Public Higher instruction is free in Egypt, and Egyptian pupils merely pay enrollment fees. International pupils pay full tuition with fees that reach up to ? 1,500 a twelvemonth. In 2004, the Egyptian authorities announced its program to make new public universities from dividing multi-branch universities ( Cairo University, Menoufia HYPERLINK â€Å" hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanta_University † University ) . This should let the enlargement of these much neglected smaller rural subdivisions and supply infinite for the increasing figure of pupils. There is besides al Azhar University, considered the best university for the survey of faith and scientific discipline. Private Universities Before 1993, merely two private foreign establishments were established decennaries ago. The American University in Cairo, founded in 1919 and the Arab Academy for Science and Technology ( AAST ) . Under a new jurisprudence in 1993, Egyptian private universities were established get downing from 1996. These new universities are accredited from the Egyptian Supreme Council of Universities every 3 old ages, in add-on to accreditation from foreign educational organic structures in Europe. ( Herrera, 2007 ) 2.3.2 Admission Admission to public universities and establishments operates through a centralised office, Admission Office of Egyptian Universities. This office receives applications after the consequences from the General Secondary Education Certificate are announced in any of its offices or online. The application day of the months are announced every twelvemonth but normally take topographic point every August. The application is both discipline-based and university-based. Students are asked to make full the admittances application that naming their picks of their coveted subject and university in a descending order of precedence. Students with higher tonss have a better opportunity of procuring a topographic point for themselves in their school of pick. While lower-scoring pupil may â€Å" acquire stuck † in a school or train different from that they desired, which might take them to seek admittance in private universities where competition for topographic points is less ferocious. Admission to private universities is different and is similar to universe broad registration processs. 2.3.3 Course of study In universities, general or private, course of study are left to lectors and professors to make up one’s mind the doctrine, guidelines, and even stuffs that they think pupils should larn. By and large talking, the course of study is centralised plenty to incarnate political and classless rules presented in free instruction and guaranting that all students have entree to the same programme of survey. It aims to raise criterions, guarantee that all pupils attain the aims at each degree, and to make the conditions for increased school and instructor answerability. 2.4 English linguistic communication instruction in Egypt English has long been given a particular position in Egypt, whether â€Å" a necessary immorality during the British business † or â€Å" a practical vehicle for educational, economic andaˆÂ ¦ societal mobility ( Schaub, 2000, p. 235 ) † . the chief aims set for ELT are to develop the ability to utilize English for communicating ; to further favorable attitudes towards larning in general and towards appropriate foreign civilizations in peculiar ; to develop an consciousness of the nature of linguistic communication and linguistic communication acquisition and hence, achieve cross-cultural consciousness ; to assist pupils ‘ womb-to-tomb acquisition every bit good as develop self-independence and to advance collaborative as a measure towards conveying up citizens who appreciate teamwork ( Schaub, 2000 ) . These are what is stated as the theoretical purposes of instruction. However, As far as the EFL schoolroom is concerned, it is non different from any other school topic, since it is a portion of the whole system. The state of affairs might conceivably be worse, due to the particular nature of the English linguistic communication learning in Egypt. The dominant form in the bulk of schoolrooms is that of an active instructors and inactive scholars. The instructor is the exclusive authorization to make up one’s mind â€Å" what † and â€Å" haw † in the instruction and acquisition procedure, based on the cognition spelled out by the stakeholders. In footings of quality, the instruction and acquisition of EFL is characterised by instructors ‘ low proficiency in the mark linguistic communication. Teachers ‘ chief involvement and purpose is to acquire their pupils to go through their tests. Students ‘ Markss in such tests are the grounds of instructors ‘ success along with their governments in accomplishing the purposes of the MOE. That is why it is non surprising to happen a parallel system of instruction called â€Å" private tuition † taking at enabling pupils to go through the test and acquire high Markss. This private and Markss oriented tuition has long been fought by the authorities, which tries difficult to take serious and terrible steps against it. However, these attempts have been in vain up to now. Besides, a big per centum of primary and preparative school instructors are non-specialists ( 41 % ) ( Ibrahim, 2008 ) . In add-on, rating techniques do non get by with the development in acq uisition and learning methodological analysis techniques, and are rather far from the existent appraisal of pupils ‘ public presentation. 2.5 Teacher preparation Reform Programme: Egypt has no deficit of instructors, so if anything Egypt has a excess of instructors, with some of 800,000 instructors presently believed to be in the state. ( Abdel-WAHAB, January 2008 ) ( Crookes, 2003 ) concludes that autochthonal Egyptian instructors, though non needfully utilizing activities or schoolroom interaction forms thought most desirable by Second Language Acquistion theoreticians, likely acquire better than foreign teachers ; but that the big category contexts that were new to the Egyptian instruction system ( through non unusual around the universe ) were a challenge met by the visitants. However the techniques used by visitants to pull off theses challenges, Holliday suggests, would be improbable to hold positive long-run effects because they did non construct on autochthonal forms and penchants. ( Holliday, 1996 ) concludes that † merely a new, rationalized-yet traditional- attack, could be to the full effectual in theaˆÂ ¦.culture of Egyptian university big classesaˆÂ ¦.. Exceptions apart, merely local lectors would be able to the full to accomplish this, because it would necessitate a rationalized edifice and re-allocation [ of thoughts and resources ] on an bing traditional footing ( p.100 ) Well aware of the challenges, the authorities is now looking for new ways of making things and has emarked on a big graduated table reform programme of public instruction to give single instituttions greater liberty and engagement to the private sector to assist increase capacity and better criterions. ( The Report: Egypt 2009, 2009 ) The major accomplishments of the Higher Education Enhancement Programme ( HEEP ) have been integrated into the national Education strategic program for the period 2008-2012, which aims to deconcentrate the national the national school construction, present school-based reform and better human resources through professional development programmes. The increased accent on instructor preparation within the model of the National Education Strategic Plan is considered one of the most of import facets of the reform programme. 2.6 EFL prospective instructors preparation programme at Menoufia University: Since the focal point in this survey is centred on prospective EFL instructors ‘ perceptual experiences of microteaching, it will be utile to supply an overview of Menoufia university, Faculty of instruction and their readying programme in the school of instruction. 2.6.1 Menoufia University: Historical background An Egyptian Public University founded in 1976, is located chiefly in Shibin EL Kom, a metropolis in Delta and the capital of the Monufia Governorate. There is besides a subdivision in 1 † Sadat City, founded in 2006. It contains modules: of Education, Agriculture, Arts, Computers and Information, Commerce, Law, and Medicine. Both undergraduate and post-graduate instruction is offered. 2.6.2 Menoufia university mission, general intents and strategic aims Menoufia university ‘s mission is lending to construct the academic and moral construction of people, and developing both the local and national societies by supplying the specialised cognition and accomplishments peculiarly those that are related to the rural and new industrial communities through high quality educational, research, and social services that can assist the university to accomplish a competitory advantage at the national, regional, and international degrees. The general intents of the University represent the cardinal indexs of success of the achievement of the University ‘s mission. Seven general intents are identified for Menoufiya University. Each of the old general intents has a figure of strategic aims that reflect them. ( see appendix 1 ) 2.6.3 Faculty of Education, Menoufia University The module of Education was foremost established in 1971, affiliated to Ain Shams University. In 1975, it became attached to Tanta University. The module so became attached to Minoufiya University at its initiation in 1976. It contains sections of Educational Psychology. Curricula and Teaching Methods, and Education Fundamentals. Its Bachelors grades are offered in combination with one of the sections in the module of Humanistic disciplines or the Faculty of Science. 2.6.4 school of Education English section readying classs: Theoretically, EFL instructors is prepared in the module of instruction through two complementary sets of classs. The first set of classs is chiefly linguistic communication proficiency classs ( capable affair cognition like English literature, interlingual rendition, grammar, phonetics, and linguistics ) , and the 2nd set is pedagogical classs ( the instruction proficiency ) , including classs like foundations of instruction ; comparative instruction ; educational psychological science ; along with the learning practicum that aims to fix pupil instructors for the prospective occupation. The practicum is jointly carried out and supervised by the MOE inspectors and instructors along with the staff of modules of instruction. Bettering Pre service teacher developing programmes: The national board for professional instruction criterions ( NBPTS ) identified five features of high-quality instructor: Teachers are committed to pupils and their acquisition. Teachers know the topic they teach and how to learn those topics to pupils. Teachers are responsible for pull offing and supervising pupil acquisition. Teachers think consistently about their pattern and learn from experience. Teachers are members of larning communities. Demand for teacher readying plans at establishments of higher instruction and through a go oning procedure of development and research, the centre for the development of English Language Teaching ( CDELT ) supported by the Integrated English Language Program ( IELP- II ) have integrated information about instructional rules to develop Egyptian criterions for instructors graduating from pre-service English instructor instruction plans ( STEP ) . Through the professional instruction plan, campaigners are expected to run into the criterions at progressively complex degrees. Campaigners are assessed at each degree to show public presentation. The subjects of building cognition, developing pattern, and furthering relationships provide the foundation for each of the criterions. These criterions, which are grouped into five chief spheres schoolroom direction, linguistic communication, direction, appraisal, and professionalism, organize the anchor of our instructor instruction plans. The STEPS undertaking is a countrywide enterprise under the protections of the Center for the Development of English Language Teaching ( CDELT ) in coaction with the Program Planning and Monitoring Unit ( PPMU ) . It is sponsored by the Integrated English Language Project II ( IELP-II ) . Its purpose is to put criterions for instructors of English at pre-service degree. The STEPS undertaking force consists of representatives from 12 Faculties of Education from nine universities and from the Ministry of Education of the Arab Republic of Egypt. The Task Force has drafted a set of criterions in five spheres depicting what freshly qualified instructors from our Faculties of Education should cognize and be able to make. The Role of CDELT to better Clinical supervising during Practicum: Harmonizing to ( Bowers A ; Gaies, 1997 ) , Five rules underline the clinical supervivsion of CDELT classs. These are: There should be a balance between. theory and pattern, between the †educational † and the † preparation † maps. The feasibleness of proposals for alteration in instructor public presentation should be judged against the existent restraints of the learning context. The personal sensitiveness indispensable to effectual counciling and preparation is best developed within the security of a system or † paradigm † of counselor-teacher interaction. Observation should be systematic and focused, with rating based on grounds available to the instructor. Reding should steer the instructor toward specific, mensurable, and moderate alterations in behaviour. Examination of theses rules offers an indicant of the scheme of the CDELT attack to supervisor readying. The CDELT offers a full-time class of 24 hebdomads. It includes 20 hebdomad class work in four blocks of 5 hebdomads each, and one 4-week block of practical experience, in the center of five blocks. During the first two blocks, along with classs related to linguistic communication betterment, there are talks and seminars in debut to linguistics, theories of English linguistic communication instruction, and learning methods. Theses satisfy the demand to set up perceptual experiences of what linguistic communication is, what instruction is, and alternate attacks to the instruction of English. Over the diploma class as a whole, we aim to integrate into supervisor readying the five indispensable purposes of instructor instruction identified by, which among them guarantee theoretical grasp and practical application: principle, experience, observation, test and integrating. 2.7 Decision The purpose of this chapter has been to supply the layout of the Egyptian educational system so as to give the reader an overview about the context in which this survey is connected, clarifying why this survey is of import for Egyptian instruction in general and linguistic communication instruction in Egypt in peculiar. Furthermore, the chapter reveals the alterations and fortunes that have been underway for about two decennaries now. These alterations are represented by proposing and planing new attacks, rules and weaponries for the general instruction, and in peculiar, for EFL acquisition and instruction. The undermentioned chapter is chiefly devoted to reexamining the literature related to EFl instructor readying programme and the function of microteaching in bettering their instruction public presentation. Abdel-WAHAB, A. ( January 2008 ) . Modeling Students ‘ Purpose to Adopt E-learning: A Case From Egypt. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE, 9, 157-167. Arbors, R. , A ; Gaies, S. ( Eds. ) . ( 1997 ) . Clinical supervising of linguistic communication instruction: the supervising as trainer and pedagogue Cambridge university imperativeness. Crookes, G. ( Ed. ) . ( 2003 ) . A practicum in TESOL: Professional Development through Teaching Practice: Cambridge University Press. Ginsburb, M. , A ; Megahed, N. ( Eds. ) . ( 2009 ) . Comparative Positions on Teachers, Teaching and Professionalism Springer. Hargreaves, E. ( 1997 ) . The sheepskin disease in Egypt: Learning, instruction and the monster of the secondary departure certification. . Appraisal in Education, 4, 161-167. Herrera, L. ( Ed. ) . ( 2007 ) . Higher Education in the Arab World: Springer. Higher Education in Egypt: Reappraisals of National Policies for Education. ( 2010 ) . ) . Holliday, A. ( Ed. ) . ( 1996 ) . Large-and small-class civilizations in Egyptian university schoolrooms: a cultural justification for course of study alteration. : Cambrigde University imperativeness. Ibrahim, H. ( 2008 ) . The strategic reading procedures of Egyptian EFL scholars. Exeter University. Metcalfe, A. ( Ed. ) . ( 2008 ) . Speculating Research Policy: A Model for Higher Education: Springer. The Report: Egypt 2009. ( 2009 ) . ) : Oxford concern group. Said, M. , A ; Mourad, M. ( Eds. ) . ( 2008 ) . Egypt. Baston: Baston College Center for International Higher Education. Schaub, M. ( 2000 ) . English in the Arab Republic of Egypt. World Englishes, 19 ( 2 ) , 225-238. Appendix 1 Menoufia University mission, purposes and Strategic Aims Purpose Strategic aims 1 A alumnus who is compatible with the modern-day challenges Bettering the quality of the educational procedure harmonizing to the both the local and international criterions. Associating theA educationA withA theA issuesA of bothA societyA andA localA environment. Effective leading of pupils. Bettering the wellness and societal attention of the pupils. Increasing the competitory capablenesss of the alumnuss in the labour market. 2 An first-class staff member. Accurate choice of the instruction and back uping staff members. Sustainability of the integrated development of the instruction and back uping staff members. Effective motive of the instruction and back uping staff members. Continuous public presentation assessment of the instruction and back uping staff members. Advanced systems for advancing the instruction and supportingA staff members. 3 Advanced academic research to be oriented by the intents of the national comprehensive development programs. Constructing an advanced academic base for the scientific research. Associating the scientific research with the issues of the comprehensive development programs at the national degree. 4 Promoting values and ideal rules. Developing and intensifying the belongingness to Egypt. Constructing the positive personality. Guaranting the values and committedness. Guaranting and esteeming the university ‘s values and traditions. 5 Civilized society and developing environment. Directing and utilizing the scientific research to function the development demands of the environment. Freedom of sentiment and protection of rational belongings. Bettering the quality of life. Developing consciousness of the cultural heritage. Developing the sense of beauty and encouraging creativeness. Developing the environmental consciousness. Promoting the behaviours that are compatible with the society development. 6 Distinguished position of the University in the development procedure of the instruction system. Distinguishing the university from others al both the local and international degrees. Bettering the society ‘s trust and convection of the university ‘s roleA and accomplishments. Triping the university ‘s parts in the local and internationalA academic motion. More effectual function of the university in the current development systems of the higher instruction and scientific research. 7 Effective administrative system. Bettering the organisation of the university ‘s councils and commissions. Bettering the university ‘s organisational and occupation constructions. Computerizing both the administrative and fiscal systems. Bettering the forming facets of the university ‘s fiscal and private concern units. Bettering the choice procedure of the non-academic leaders and the administrative staff. Continuous development of abilities and accomplishments of administrative staff. Effective motive of the administrative staff. Effective public presentation assessment and controlling of the administrative system. How to cite Description of the educational system in Egypt, Essays

Saturday, December 7, 2019

B. F. Skinner Essay Example For Students

B. F. Skinner Essay B. F. SkinnerBurris Frederic Skinner was born on March 20th, 1904 in Susquehanna,Pennsylvania. His mother, Grace M. Burrhus, was a stenographer and a secretary,in a law office and later in a railroad chief executives office. His father,William A. Skinner, was an attorney, who studied law with another local attorneyat a New York Law School. Skinners parents were both good students. His fatherhad bought several sets of books, so there was a lot of reading material theirchildren. Skinner said that his parents never used physical punishment, exceptfor the time they washed his mouth out with soap for bad language. (Ulrich,1997) B. F. Skinner was very adventurous child. He lead a 300 mile canoe tripdown the Susquehanna River when he was only 13 years old. He was a naturalinventor and he loved build things. One of his inventions included a device thatautomatically reminded him to hang up his pajamas in the morning. He played thesaxophone in a jazz band during high school and played piano un til his failingeyesight made it hard for him to read the music. In college, he was veryindependent, and sometimes even a prankster. He graduated from Hamilton Collegein 1926 and later received his P.h.D. in psychology at Harvard University. (Ulrich, 1997)John B. WatsonJohn Broadus Watson was born in Greenville, South Carolina on January9th 1878. He went to college at Furman University and the University of Chicago. Watson created Psychological behaviorism in 1912. He told the world about histheory of behaviorism in a 1913 paper entitled Psychology as the BehavioristViews It. In the paper he described Behaviorism as the part of psychology thatshows behavior as a series of observable movements in time and space. (Turner,1997) He rejected both conscious and unconscious mental activities and definedbehavior as a response to a stimulus. A few of John B. Watsons literary worksinclude the following books and papers: Animal Education, Behavior, Psychologyfrom the Standpoint of a Behaviorist, Behaviorism, and Psychological Care ofInfant and Child. (Turner, 1997)Along with his own theories of behaviorism, Skinner developed the theoryof operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is based on the idea that webehave the way we do because this kind of behavior has had certain consequencesin the past. (Demar, 1996) For example, if your parents give you a present whenyou do what your told, you will be likely to behave when you want to get apresent. This means that basically- you do something to get a reward. LikeWatson, Skinner denied that feelings play any part in determining behavior. Instead, he claimed that the drive to be rewarded determines our behavior. (Demar, 1996)Some critics feel that operant conditioning was a dangerous techniquebecause Skinner was controlling people and could have manipulated them. In replyto their criticism, Skinner argued that control is not wrong. Control is veryimportant and sometimes unavoidable in education, government, and therapy. (Bijou, 1994) What Skinner objects to is the fact that control is usually usedin negative ways which include the use of threat, punishment or to use otherpeople. Skinner argues that because of this, people are against control, becausethe people in control use their power it in a negative way. For instance, Inthe family, a child is controlled by the fear of punishment from his parents. In school, the students are placed in a threatening environment in which theycan escape only by learning. Our government controls us through laws, rules, andregulations. Skinner claims that what is needed is not less control but bettercontrol. Better control could be used if society had adopted his psychologicaltheories. If this where to happen there would be better ways of teaching, betterworking conditions, and a better system of government. (Skinner, 1938) Skinnerhad many inventions that pertained to behaviorism. One of his most famousinventions was called a Skinner box. A Skinner box is a chamber made bySkinner which helps control animal behavior in laboratory experiments. In oneexperiment using the skinner box, he made it so if the chicken pecks on theyellow, green, or red buttons, he gets nothing. But if he hits the blue button,a small amount of food comes down the chute; therefor, the chicken is reinforcedwith food for hitting the correct button. He also created other inventio ns,including an air-crib for babies and the first cumulative recorder. (Bjord,1990) Skinners experiments with rats and pigeons raise the following

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Rate and Collision Theory free essay sample

For this assignment, you will be designing a lab to investigate factors that affect the rate of a reaction. You are not required to conduct the experiment, but it may be beneficial to do so if you can acquire the materials needed for your design. The reaction that you will be investigating is the reaction that occurs when an Alka-Seltzer tablet is placed into a given amount of water. Alka-Seltzer is an over-the-counter antacid and pain relief medication that is dissolved in water before it is ingested. Each tablet contains aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate. As the tablet dissolves in water, the bicarbonate ions in the tablet react with the hydrogen ions from the acids that are also contained in the tablet. The carbon dioxide gas that is produced by the reaction is what causes the bubbling that can be observed. HCO3- (aq) + H+ (aq) H2O (l) + CO2 (g) In this investigation, you will design an experiment to determine what two factors will increase the rate of the reaction above, and then compare the effectiveness of each factor. We will write a custom essay sample on Rate and Collision Theory or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It is important that in each investigation you control all other variables that could affect the rate of the reaction. The document that you submit to your instructor should include the following sections: materials, procedure, and conclusion. Instructions and suggestions are provided below to help you make sure that each section of your document is complete. I really have no idea what Im doing and Im just writing a bunch of stuff so I can look at another paper to copy because I hate chemistry and have no idea how to do this. I need serious help with this, I hate it so much and want to get it over with. What the heck do I do with this, what do I do man, what do I do. I need help with this stuff, please, if youd be so kind as to allow this to pass through so I can get to the paper, you stupid website. I hate chemistry so much and I wish it a horrible painful death, okay there. I said it, what are you going to do about it, science, what?

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Miracles Essays

Miracles Essays Miracles Essay Miracles Essay Essay Topic: The Healers a.1) Christians believe that a miracle is an event that apparently transcends human power and the laws of nature. That is attributed to a special divine intervention or to supernatural forces. However there is room for argument. some choose to believe that a babies first smile is a miracle, this of course dose not transcend human powers or the laws of nature, also some people think that all miracles are legends. Or stories but this does not come into the Christian faith.a.2) Jesus was presented as a miracle worker in many ways; he performed healing miracles (LK 18:35-43) Jesus healed a blind beggar, Jesus said to the beggar your faith has healed you this quote is teaching of devotion to God, the beggar devoted his life to God and truly believed that he would be healed, another example of Christians being healed by there faith is (LK5:17-26) Jesus healed a paralytic, some men lowered the paralytic man from the roof in front of Jesus, Jesus saw their faith and s aid friends, your sins are forgiven. Then he told the paralytic to get and walk and the paralytic did so. This teaching shows that Jesus had the authority to forgive sins and had the power to perform remarkable things.Jesus also performed Exorcisms such as, (LK4:31-39) Jesus removed a demand (illness) from a man, with the power of God, Jesus had great influence over the demand and cast it away, this is evidence to support the quote is Jesus the son of God, teaching us that Jesus has authority and we should live our lives as he commands, furthermore Jesus performs another exorcism in (LK8:26-39) Jesus removed many demons from a man who called himself Legion because there were so many demons in him, the demands begged for Jesus not to order them to go to the abyss, so Jesus let them go into some pigs, when this happened the pigs ran into a lake and drowned. This phenomenal event showed that Jesus really does love every one even demons, for he took pity on them because they did not wan t to go to the immeasurable depths of hell. How ever the pigs died anyway but theres nothing to prove that Jesus intended for this to happen this also again shows Jesus power and authority over the demons.Jesus performed natural miracles like the one in (LK5:1-11) it is said that man can not rule over mother nature but Jesus did, with his assume ability to perform miracles, where there had been no fish all night Jesus said let down your nets for a catch and Simon did so to find so many fish that his nets began to break. This teaches us just how much power Jesus held within his human body give a man a fish and you can let him live for a day, give a man a thousand fish and his whole village can live for another day. Another natural miracle Jesus performed is in (LK9:10-17) with only 5 loves of bread and 2 fish Jesus fed 5000 men, taking the five loves and two fish and looking up to heaven, he gave thanks and broke them. This is truly an amazing thing to be done and teaches us that we should be thankful for the food that God has blesses us with and we should give thanks as Jesus did when we eat.Lastly Jesus performed raisings, such as (LK7:11-17) Jesus raised a widows son, when he saw the widow his heart went out to her and he touched the coffin and the young man was returned to his mother. This heart touching occurrence teaches us to love and have feeling for those that we dont know (the Good Samaritan), as Jesus did for all those who he healed.All of these extraordinary stories are based on Jesus love for others he is presented as a worker of miracles thorough love and affection for others and unquiet ability to forgive every. He even forgave those who hammered him to the cross he is a symbol of admirable and distinguished love and authority.b.) For Christians today the healing miracles are phenomenal events that we cannot explain scientifically, (all though some people choose to believe a miracle is just a story or legend). To a Christian a miracle that involv es healing means that God is still at work today helping those who have faith and bring the light of the holy spirit to those who have been deprived of Gods love in their lives.The miracles Jesus performed in (LK4:38-40) where he healed many of their sicknesses, shows that his love was so strong he was willing to put his own life in danger to help others, he may have caught a life threatening illness from someone healed. These kind of events still happen today with people like mother Teresa, she was a Christian who took care of ill people and risked her own life in the process. With her strong Christian faith and infinite love for those around her, she would unquestionably help an ill person to their feet and take care of them.Although physical and mental healing takes place today, It is not always in the same way as in Jesus day. Today people are most likely to be physically healed by medicine and mentally healed by councillors and psychologists. Although there are stories of peopl e whose faith has healed them today, Jesus said many times your faith has healed you, this phrase goes for what happened to a girl called Amanda Manifold.Amanda was born into a spirit filled family, in 1968 when she was 8 years old she her self received the Holy Spirit with the bible evidence of speaking in tongue and was baptised by full immersion. That same year she became very ill, and was diagnosed as having a rare and sinister form of leukaemia (Acute Myeloid Leukaemia) the treatment for this was experimental and the doctors gave Amanda a 20% chance of survival to her 10th birthday. She under went many courses of chemotherapy and finally went into remission. Unfortunately, ten months later she had a relapse and was gravely ill. No one in that hospital with A.M.L had ever serviced a relapse, however the doctors tried their best to save Amandas life. They attempted an autologous bone marrow transplant, which was unsuccessful. Chemotherapy was not an option as her immune system wa s far too weak. There were many complications and Amanda spent over two months in intensive care, fighting for her life. On the 17th of January 1989, the specialists said they could not give her any more treatment and sadly told Amadas parents that she would not see another summer. We have done all we can, they told them, we cant perform miracles.Amanda and her parents knew God could perform miracles. They trusted fully in gods healing promises and never doubted that Amandas health would be restored. Three weeks later she returned to school, strong healthy and full of the joy of the lord. Since 1989 she has had no further treatment. This amazing turn-around had confounded the specialists and they call her the miracle girl. Amanda praises God for her life and His unfailing promises. This story shows that today like in Jesus day your faith can heal you and others.However some scientists believe in mind over matter, and have and have done experiments with hypnoses, a hypnotised man was told hot metal was touching his skin when really it was cold, his skin blistered anyway showing that his body reacted violently to what his mind believed. Therefore if someone really believed they were ill then their body might react to this and vice versa, if they believed they would be healed then they would become healthy again.With the help of science we know today that illnesses are not caused by demands but by diseases and viruses etc. although some may question why good faithful Christians who have devoted their lives to God should become ill, is this maybe the work of the devil? Health has very little to with being ill (dr.Drew of Weston), this statement to me means that to be mentally ill is the same as being physically ill, if you had a fever you would stay in bed feeling unhappy and unsociable and if your illness was really bad you might lose hope and die, this can be closely associated with what might happens if you are mentally ill, you would stay in bed not wanting to talk and become very unhappy causing you to lose hope of life and lead you to suicide. To a Christian death is not seen as the end but as a new beginning with God in heaven, this is not a good reason to kill you self though, Christians believe that God gave you life and he chooses when to take it away.c.) Do healing miracles happen today? this statement can be seen in two different lights, in one light (the dark one) it is seen that healing miracles do not happen today, only a very limited amount of so-called healers will admit that they do not have any powers the apostles had. They do not dare attempt even the healing miracles that the apostles did. Jesus said heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, and cast out devils: freely ye have received, freely give. Theses present day supposed healers will attempt only certain cases and will reject anyone who has anything seriously wrong with them.But in the other light (the bright one) there is a man called David Hathaway, who is a healer who has tremendous powers to heal, on the 13th march 1999 he healed a man called Peter who was blinded by a fishing rod. David loves to see young people like this healed, when doctors can do nothing. However, seeing Peters lack in faith, David made him sit down and watch with his one good eye others being healed, David wanted Peters faith to be lifted by what he saw. When Peters turn came David took authority of Jesus name and immediately Peter began to see colour, it became clearer and clearer until God gad completed a miracle.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Wardens and Guardians

Wardens and Guardians Wardens and Guardians Wardens and Guardians By Maeve Maddox A discussion prompted by Daniel’s word of the day ward put me in mind of one of my favorite etymological factoids: the relationship between words like warden and guardian. English suffers a bad rap for its spelling, but the variety of spellings is an inevitable side effect of the richness of vocabulary acquired by borrowing words from different languages at different periods of history. From 1066 until about 1250, English and French were spoken side by side in England. Then, because of political changes, the French-speaking ruling class shifted to English. The words warden and guardian are good examples of the linguistic mingling that went on between the two languages at that time. Old English had the verb weardian to keep guard, and the noun weard a guard, a watchman, a sentry, Old French had the verb guarder, â€Å"to guard.† Speakers of Norman French were people who had been Vikings a hundred years before William of Normandy invaded England in 1066. They brought their own distinctive pronunciations to French. One peculiarity was that Normans tended to pronounce the letter combination gu– as w-. For example, Old French guarder, â€Å"to guard,† became warder in Norman French. However, Parisian French kept the gu spelling and pronunciation. As a result, English ended up with words derived from both forms The OED gives numerous meanings for the word warden, including one that is identical to one of its definitions for guardian. In general usage, however, a guardian is a â€Å"protector,† while a â€Å"warden† is a â€Å"keeper.† A similar pair of words is warranty and guarantee. Both words have the sense of an assurance that a certain standard of quality or integrity will be upheld. As a legal term, warranty means n. a written statement of good quality of merchandise, clear title to real estate or that a fact stated in a contract is true. An express warranty is a definite written statement and implied warranty is based on the circumstances surrounding the sale or the creation of the contract. Law.com A new car comes with a warranty. If anything goes wrong with the car during a specified period, the warranty is a document that entitles the owner to have the problem corrected without charge. The word guarantee is often used as a synonym for warranty. However, a guarantee can be something more concrete. Warring sides might exchange hostages as a guarantee that neither will fight during an agreed period of truce. A parent might confiscate a child’s cell phone as a guarantee that he won’t be texting instead of doing homework. Etymology nerds can have fun looking for modern French words beginning with gu that correspond to English words beginning with w-. For example: war/guerre: Old English wyrre; Norman French werre; Modern French guerre. And of course there’s William the Conqueror whom the French refer to as Guillaume le Conquà ©rant. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:100 Idioms About Numbers"Certified" and "Certificated"50 Plain-Language Substitutions for Wordy Phrases

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

MTV Culture And Music TV In Popular Culture Research Paper

MTV Culture And Music TV In Popular Culture - Research Paper Example With the desire to have huge following and cover, mass media engineered strategies to influence as many people as possible. Some of these strategies revolve around creating a culture that is consistent with the needs of the people, the products being advertised, and that can influence the beliefs, behaviors, and attitudes of people regarding certain products and services to the targeted audience. Music TV, MTV culture in popular culture One of the most popular culture edifices is music. Music stalks all life realms and it is impossible to find an individual who does not like any kind of music. Since its establishment in 1981, MTV has had a great influence in the way popular culture, especially in the music industry, has evolved and developed. It is hard to distinguish pop culture, MTV and music TV. There is no other mass media communication network that has had such influence and control over popular cultural evolution than the two networks (Rojek 199). MTV as a mass media communication network has greatly impacted the way people hold beliefs about politics, dressing, public figures, and other life elements that the network communicates to the audience. One of the credits that MTV has had is the way it has shaped the music industry. MTV and other music TV networks have taken a revolutionary turn by airing certain types of music that are conversant with the audience. For example, MTV has shaped people’s taste of music through repeated airing of pop music and gangsta rap that dominates the world popular culture.

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Telephony Application and VoIP (voice over Internet Protocol Dissertation

Telephony Application and VoIP (voice over Internet Protocol - Dissertation Example Although VoIP has been commendable in replacing PSTN, its application is not without drawbacks based on security and privacy of voice call information and impacts on quality of service. This paper evaluates and explains VoIP in detail in order to understand its functions, advantages, disadvantages, VoIP protocols and, best protocols for VoIP application. The research reveals Session Initiation Protocol or SIP as the best protocol given that it is easier to secure and sustain the quality of VoIP service. Acknowledgements First and foremost, I thank my parents for their support in my pursuit of a college education. I am grateful for their unfading support financially and emotionally. I also thank my instructor, who since I decided on this topic, has been a great source of encouragement, supervision, and academic counseling. Without your sincere support, the completion of this paper would not have been feasible. I thank you once again. I also thank my classmate and friend Yasir who has been of much appreciate assistance in ensuring that I intensely research the topic and obtain detailed relevant material for use in this paper. My gratitude to you is beyond words. Finally, I thank everyone, who in any little way has assisted me in research, drafting the manuscript and whose support has remained untainted throughout the process. I thank you all and many blessings. Table of Contents Acknowledgements 3 Chapter One 6 Introduction to the Problem 6 Technology is advancing every day; included in that technological advancement is the improvement of telephone capabilities. While most are familiar with modern cell phone and smart phone technology, voice over internet protocol, or VoIP, is also a technological improvement, with regards to telephoning that should be considered. 6 Traditional telephony, or telephone technology, according to Meggelen, Smith and Madsen is the technology associated with the transmission of voice, fax, video or other form of information, electronic ally (2009). Such transfer involves parties located long distances apart and who are using systems originally linked with telephone. A telephone device is characterized by a transmitter or speaker on one side and a receiver on the other. The telephone science involves translation of sound or voice signal into electrical signals then transmitting them and translating them into sound signal at the destination. In the modern world, Meggelen, Smith and Madsen, point out that computer hardware and software assumes the roles that telephones used to (2009). Commendable changes in telephony were achieved by the arrival of computers, transmission of digital information over telephone systems and utilization of radio for transmission of telephone signals. 6 Internet telephony is the utilization of internet infrastructure and related technology instead of traditional telephone infrastructure to exchange voice, sound or other information transferable through telephone (MacKnight, Lehr & Clark, 2001). With internet telephony, telephone access is affordable at local connection rates. As a result, any long distance or international calls are much less expensive compared to the traditional call set up (Rouse, 2008). 6 The inception of the internet has led to the development of several new services, three

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Hsc Mod C Julius Caesar Essay Example for Free

Hsc Mod C Julius Caesar Essay Composers of texts present a biased attitude to the events, personalities or situations represented. In various texts such as Shakespeare’s â€Å"Julius Caesar† and Leunig’s cartoon â€Å"Yet another picture with the wrong caption†, the composers bias is evident even though conflicting perspectives towards the personality are presented. Although conflicting perspectives are present in Shakespeare’s â€Å"Julius Caesar†, the composers bias is still evident. Shakespeare’s â€Å"Julius Caesar† is a play which reflected the anxiety of England over succession of leadership. When the play was written in 1599, intense censorship prevailed and Shakespeare chose Caesar’s story in order to convey significant ideas and messages to the Elizabethan audience about the importance of strong leadership. Shakespeare’s biased attitude is evident throughout the course of the play â€Å"Julius Caesar† as perspectives of Caesar differs greatly. The representation of multiple conflicting perspectives in â€Å"Julius Caesar† does not ensure that the text remains unbiased in its portrayal of personalities. Conflicting perspectives are used in â€Å"Julius Caesar† to build dramatic tension, within the group of conspirators as well as those who oppose them. In the beginning, Shakespeare manipulates us to take on the conspirators’ view of Caesar as an egomaniac dictator whom is ruthless, cunning and overall intolerable. This view is depicted in Act I Scene II of the play whereby Flavius and Murellus are killed for breaking up celebrations on Caesar becoming king â€Å"Murellus and Flavius, for pulling scarves of Caesars images, are put to silence. Fare you well†. Caesars arrogance and egotistical nature can be seen through his language which is autocratic and imperative throughout the play â€Å"For always I am Caesar†. Shakespeare depicts Caesar in an unflattering light to a certain extent to reiterate the importance of strong leadership to the Elizabethan audience. Shakespeare’s bias is further presented in the play â€Å"Julius Caesar† as he moulds us to value Caesar, and we later perceive him as a successful and deserving leader. This is shown after the assassination, as Caesar remains omnipotent throughout the rest of the play whereby Brutus sees his ghost on several occasions. This notion is further heightened as both Cassius and Brutus die with their last words being concerned with Caesar â€Å"Caesar, thou art revenged†. In turn, this further illustrates that the composers biased attitude is evident in the play â€Å"Julius Caesar† as we are given multiple perceptions on the one personality. Therefore it is evident that even though different perspectives towards the personality are manifested, Shakespeare’s bias is still evident. In the play â€Å"Julius Caesar† individuals are driven by different ambitions and motivations including those of freedom, idealism and honour. Both Brutus and Cassius see the need for Caesar’s death but are driven by different motivations and perspectives on the political situation at the time. Cassius hates Caesar and his hatred towards him is caused in part for the power given to someone he sees as his physical and intellectual inferior, which is shown through persuasive rhetorical questions â€Å"Upon what meat doth this our Caesar feed/ That he has grown so great? † His hatred is trigged by his own lack of success infuriated by perceptions that a man so physically feeble should â€Å"bear the palm alone†. Cassius hatred towards Caesar and his perception of him being a Tyrant is further heightened through the use of visual imagery â€Å" he doth bestride the narrow world/ Like a Colossus, and we petty men/ Walk under his huge legs and peep about/ To find ourselves dishonorable graves†. Unlike Cassius, Brutus is an honorable, self –righteous and noble man whose motivation for Caesars death is driven for the love of Rome as well as his concern that Rome would become a dictatorship ruled by a single corrupted individual, rather than the malice, greed and envy that Cassius carries. Brutus’s motivations behind the death of Caesar is clearly evident in his speech after the assassination. Throughout his speech, Brutus relies on reason and logical rationale and syllogisms to explain the reasons behind the assassination â€Å"If then that friend demand why Brutus rose against Caesar, this is my answer: not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more. Had you rather Caesar were living, and die all slaves, than that Caesar were dead, to live all free man? /as he was ambitious, I slew him†. These strong and emotive words demonstrate Brutus strong love for Rome. Thus it can be said that, although Shakespeare presents various perceptions towards Julius Caesar, the composer’s bias is not negated. In comparison to the perceptions both Cassius and Brutus have towards Caesar, is the perspectives of Antony and Caesar of himself. Antony looked at Caesar as a friend, a role model as well as a kind and deserving leader. This notion is exemplified through the use of emotive language â€Å"O mighty Caesar! /most noble blood of all this world/ the noblest man/ That ever lived in the tide of times†. Furthermore, the use of descriptive and connotative language throughout Antony’s funeral eulogy such as â€Å"sweet Caesar† paints Caesar as a victim to an appalling and monstrous crime. His disgust and pity towards the conspirators is also clearly illustrated throughout the eulogy. He describes the conspirators as â€Å"butchers† and, again in a soliloquy, cries â€Å"havoc and let slip the dogs of war†, which reiterates Antony’s deep loathing of the conspirators actions towards Caesar. On the other hand, Caesar perceives himself as invincible as well as a grand and confident leader. Self promoting imagery which relates to constancy, â€Å"But I am as constant as the northern star† as well as Godlike, monumental power, â€Å"Hence! Wilt thou lift up Olympus? † exemplifies his steady and firm nature of being a ruler. His confidence of being a successful leader which has been aroused by his social status is heightened throughout the imperative words â€Å"For always I am Caesar†. This therefore illustrates the many perceptions presented to the one personality in the play â€Å"Julius Caesar†. Hence it is evident, that the text â€Å"Julius Caesar† remains biased even though there are conflicting perspectives presented. Leunig’s sardonic cartoon â€Å"Yet another picture with the wrong caption† is another example of conflicting perspectives. The cartoon is in the form of a newspaper report in which shocking facts and statistics about the conditions in the war in Iraq are just beneath the image in which John Howard and George Bush are leaning forward, smiling and shaking hands in front of an immaculate fireplace. There are two very obvious perspectives being presented about the coalitions in the cartoon. The first perspective being their own views on themselves. In regards to the war in Iraq, both John Howard and George Bush believe they are doing an exceptional job. This view is motivated as the coalitions look self assured through their smug expressions. Also, the coalitions are overly pleased with themselves and look at one another as successful and righteous. In comparison to Julius Caesar, the Conspirators believed that by killing Caesar, they would be doing Rome and the people of Rome a favour. They strongly believed it was the right thing to do, and if they did not act in such a way, then Rome would have been controlled by a dictator. This notion can be linked to Leunig’s cartoon â€Å"Yet another picture with the wrong caption† as only in the coalitions opinion that Sadam Hussein is a dictator and therefore must also be killed. The news reporter’s own opinion on the coalitions in Leunig’s cartoon â€Å"Yet another picture with the wrong caption† is also apparent. This view is motivated through factual information, statistics which are provided, expert opinion present of the shocking reality of the war in Iraq â€Å"Increasing numbers of children in Iraq do not have enough food to eat, and more than a quarter are chronically undernourished, a UN report says†. In comparison to Shakespeare’s â€Å"Julius Caesar†, the people of Rome go against the conspirators and disagree with the killing of their leader. The removal of Caesar as a king and leader leads to civil strife, anarchy and eventually a war. The composer Leunig has represented the personalities in a negative light in the cartoon â€Å"Yet another picture with the wrong caption†. His aim is to satirise the coalition and highlight their malice and profound ignorance. Ultimately, there are many texts which portrays conflicting perspectives. These texts include Shakespeare’s play â€Å"Julius Caesar† as well as Leunig’s sardonic cartoon â€Å"Yet another picture with the wrong caption†. Therefore is can be concluded that although conflicting perspectives towards the personality are represented the composers’ bias is still evident in various texts.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder as a Metaphor in Mrs. Dalloway, By Virgi

When WWI was over, many people questioned the brutality that carried on over the four years that the war was happening. The Europeans trust in authority and in their country began to collapse, and Modernism was a way they could respond to the damage of those beliefs. It was obvious that the old world was gone and a new one had started to arise. In this new world, while other aspects of Europe were advancing, improvement in the psychiatric treatment of mental conditions, for example shell-shock, fell short. Most of British society remained unaware and uninterested in the problems that these illnesses forced on the veterans. This insensitive attitude toward the soldiers inspired Virginia Woolf to write Mrs. Dalloway. In this novel she shows us society’s attitude towards mental illness by featuring a post war veteran named Septimus Smith. The author uses Septimus’s struggles with post traumatic stress disorder as a symbol to illustrate the problems of a modern society tha t doesn’t understand how deeply the damage of World War One has affected people. An example of the difference between Septimus and the modern world as a whole is when the airplane flies above the people in the city as it spells out the word toffee. Most of the people watching were amazed by this new technology. â€Å"‘Glaxo,’ said Mrs. Coates in a strained, awestricken voice†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Kreemo,’ murmured Mrs. Bletchley, like a sleepwalker†¦as they looked the whole world because perfectly still†¦(and the car went in the gates and nobody looked at it)† (20-21). The people were so enthralled with the plane; they didn’t even care about the royal car coming in to the palace. Septimus on the other hand is completely lost in his own thoughts and interprets the plane differently. â€Å"So, t... ...g to grasp the legitimacy and severity of the disease. From this unfortunate reality emerged a Modernist novel in which Virginia Woolf sets out to juxtapose the ‘sane’ and the ‘insane’ in an attempt to express her disgust of society’s lack of sympathy and blindness towards those who suffer with mental illness. Work Cited Berman, Jeffrey. Surviving Literary Suicide. Amherst: University of Massachusetts, 1999. Print. Korte, Barbara, and Ralf Schneider. War and the Cultural Construction of Identities in Britain. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2002. Print. Levenback, Karen L. Virginia Woolf and the Great War. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 1999. Print. Ronchetti, Ann. The Artist, Society, and Sexuality in Virginia Woolf's Novels. New York: Routledge, 2004. Print. Woolf, Virginia. Mrs. Dalloway. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981. Print.

Monday, November 11, 2019

After Many a Summer Dies the Swan by Aldous Huxley

Aldous Huxley was an English fiction and non-fiction writer, novelist and critic. Besides novels he published travel books, histories, poems, plays, and essays on philosophy, arts, sociology, religion and morÄ ls He was a humanist, pacifist and satirist. He was interested in spiritual subjects as parapsychology and philosophical mysticism. His lifelong preoccupation with the negative and positive impacts of science and technology life makes him one of the representative writers and intellectuals of the 20th-century. Aldous Leonard Huxley was born on 26 of July in 1894, in Godalming, Surrey, England. His family was a part of English intellectual elite.Aldous’ grandfather was the great biologist, agnostic and controversialist Thomas Henry Huxley, who helped develop the theory of evolution. His mother was sister of Mrs. Humphrey Ward, the novelist and niece of Matthew Arnold, the poet. He had three brothers, two of them – Julian Huxley and Andrew Huxley were outstanding biologists. His third brother Noel Trevelyan Huxley committed suicide after a period of clinical depression. Huxley’s heritage and upbringing had an effect on his work. He attended Hillside school, after that he was educated at Eton College, Berkshire, and after his eyesight recovered (he had keratitis punctata which left him practically blind for two years, but it also saved him from participation in the World War I), he was able to study English literature at Balliol College, Oxford.Already then he entered the literary world while he was at Oxford, meeting writers like Lytton Strachey and Bertrand Russell and becoming close friends with D. H. Lawrence After graduation he was financially indebted to his father, that’s why he became a French teacher, but he couldn’t keep discipline. He worked also at Air Ministry and Brunner and Mond chemical plant in Billingham. In 1920-21 he worked as a drama critic for Westminster Gazette and an assistant at the Chelsea Book Club and the Condà © Nast Publications. He married Maria Nys in 1919.Their only child, Matthew Huxley, was born in 1920. The family divided their time between London and Europe, mostly Italy and France, in the 1920s, and traveled around the world in 1925 and 1926, seeing India and making a first visit to the United States. He moved in 1937 with the guru-figure Gerald Heard to the United  States, believing that the Californian climate would help his eyesight, which caused him problems all the time. A year later he with his family moved to Hollywood, where he became a screenwriter (among his films were also adaptations of Jane Austen and Pride and Prejudice).In the 1950s Huxley became famous for his interest in psychedelic or mind-expanding drugs like mescaline and LSD, which he apparently took a dozen times over ten years. In 1955died his wife Maria Huxley, and a year later hemarried Laura Archera. He died November 22, 1963, the same day that President John F. Kennedy was assassin ated. He was cremated, and his ashes were buried in his parents' grave in England. In 1961 he suffered a severe loss when his house and his papers were totally destroyed in a bush-fire. On his deathbed, unable to speak, Huxley made a written request to his wife Laura for â€Å"LSD, 100  µg, intramuscular†. Huxley died aged 69, on 22 of November, in 1963.Media coverage of Huxley's passing was overshadowed by the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and the death of the British author C. S. Lewis, alln on the same day. Huxley's ashes were interred in the family grave at the Watts Cemetery, home of the Watts Mortuary Chapel in Compton, England. Aldous Huxley produced 47 books in his long career as a writer. His most famous novels are Brand New World, Eyeless in Gaza, Ape and Essence, Island and After Many a Summer dies the Swan.The English critic Anthony Burgess has said that he equipped the novel with a brain. Other critics objected that he was a better essayist than no velist precisely because he cared more about his ideas than about plot or characters, and his novels' ideas often get in the way of the story.Novel After Many a Smmer Dies the Swan was written in 1939. Aldous had lived and worked in California for a year, so this satirical novel caricatures what he had seen as a strange life there. The novel won Huxley that year's James Tait Black Memorial Prize for fiction. In 1959 the American Academy of Arts and Letters gave him the Award of Merit for the Novel, a prize given every five years; earlier recipients had been Ernest Hemingway, Thomas Mann, and Theodore Dreiser. I need to confess, that I had never heard of this author and his novel before. In search of it, I decided that I want to read a work in original languageband because it is also a language course, I wanted to find something in English, that I haven’t heard about, that I don’t have an opinion about. Something that can challenge me.In spite that this author’s most famous novel is Brand New  World, I chosed After Many a Summer Dies the Swan, because this title intrigued me. I must say, that I don’t feel disappointed after reading this novel and I found very much quotations which made me to THINK more about THINGS. The action in this novel revolves around characters which are brought together by a Hollywood millionaire Jo Stoyte, who is in his sixities, after strokes and conscious of his mortality. In order to keep an eye on him and cure him, he has hired Dr. Sigmund Obispo, which is interested in researching the secrets of longlivity and no idications of obsolescence in animals, and his assistant Peter Boone.Mr. Stoyte is supporting Dr. Obispos’ research. Mr. Jeremy Pordage is an English archivist and literature expert, who is brought by Mr. Stoyte from England in order to archive a rare collection of books. Mr. Pordage's presence highlights Mr. Stoyte's shallow attitude towards the precious works of art, that he can affor d himself. Virginia Mounciple is Mr. Stoyte’s twenty-two year old mistress, who gives pleasure to the old man, secretly likes Dr. Obispo, and who’s young assistant Peter is in love with. Mr. Propter is Jo Stoyte’s neighbour, who is only one of the characters who achieves success and happiness, without upsetting anyone ar creating evil. All these characters have different life philosophies.Dr. Obispo places great faith in science and medicine as saviours of humankind. He sees everyone as a stepping stone to science, the greater good. According to Propter's philosophy, he is trapped in ego-based â€Å"human† behaviour that prevents him from reaching enlightenment. Dr. Obispo seduces Virginia in a characteristically egotistical way. She is unable to resist him despite her loyalty to Mr. Stoyte. When she is found out by Stoyte, he wants to kill Dr. Obispo, but accidentally kills Peter instead. Dr. Obispo covers up the act for money and continued research supp ort. This takes him, along with Virginia and Stoyte, to Europe, where they find an immortal human, the Fifth Earl of Gonister, who is 200 years old and still alive, but who now resembles an ape.Mr. Stoyte can not grasp that transcendence or goodness should be one's ultimate goal, rather than prevention of death, and expresses his wish to undergo treatment so that he too will live forever. The story works scientific knowledge into a more traditional form of narrative. The evolutionary principle of neoteny has been invoked to explain the origin of human characteristics from ape ancestors. The storyline suggests that, if we lived  longer, we would continue to develop along the path of an ape and eventually become ape-like.The story has been interpreted as the British Huxley's contemptuous nod to the Hearstian reality of the United States in the early part of the twentieth century: Jo Stoyte is an allegory for William Randolph Hearst by his acquisitions of art and living in an opulent estate – similar to Hearst Castle – with Virginia, who can be taken as a parody of Marion Davies. This novel has been adapted in theatre, cinema and radio. NBC University Theater radio made adaptation on 12 of December in 1948, starring Paul Henry and Alan Hale, Sr., with intermission commentary by Norman Cousins. In 1967 UK released 45- minute T movie – After Many a Summer, directed by Douglas Camfield.It’s story tells about an American millionaire who is searching for a magic potion, that will grant him eternal life. In early 2000 the Baryshnikov Dance Foundation commissioned a 35-minute dance for the White Oak Dance Project called After Many a Summer Dies the Swan. The book is mentioned in the novella and film A Single Man (2009), when George Falconer (Colin Firth) who is an English professor, one year after the sudden death of his boyfriend, who is unable to cope with his typical days in 1960s Los Angeles, takes an empty pistol and some notes alongsi de with this book in his briefcase.I must say, that reading this novel was difficult, because of author’s use of words, that are not acquainted in these days and special scholastic terminology, and because of that, I have feeling that I haven’t truly understood everything, but I suppose that it is normal, because I am only studying and I don’t have responsibility to know everything. In novel, there were a lot of philosophical and psychic thoughts and ideas, so I chosed the most interesting and inspiring quotes for me, which all not reveals central plot of novel or main characters perception of life, but speaks about faith and philosophy, about life and death, about good and evil, about men nature and also biology. So now I will start to pull my favourite quotes out of the story.†Potential evil is in time; potential good isn't. The longer you live, the more evil you automatically come into contact with. Nobody comes automatically into contact with good. Men don't find more good by merely existing longer.† Men have always wanted to live longer then they are supposed to, but it mostly isn’t because they want to fulfil their life with compassion and generosity to others, to those, who need help, or to gain more knowledge. All they mostly want to achieve is only their own, well, maybe sometimes also their families, goodness and wealthiness. Most of men only thinks of self-interest, but are they really inteded just for it.There must be something more for them (and us) in this life. All our life we are busy to make our plans and dreams to come true, and when our time has almost come to an end, we want to life longer to do something good. But why now, why we haven’t thought of it earlier? Because we didn’t have time. But I must say, it is so lame argument. Time was all around us, but we didn’t spend it concerning about and doing things that really matters. So, if you can extend your time, it doesn’t m ean that you will know how to spend it and find good. Time is evil, because it is slowly and consistently killing us.†Why do we fall when we jump out of a tenth-story window? Because the nature of things happens to be such that we do fall.† I really liked this quote. It is so simple and obvious fact, but I have never thought of it, because it just happens so. This first sentence really sounds to me like wordplay. Why do we fall when we jump? Some will say it is because of gravity, and there is nothing we can do about it. It is science. But maybe we are not created to do and desire whatever we want. †Jumping† or reaching for something we want, but don’t need to get, achieve or gain is †falling† or maybe even salvation from it.Our misfortune is that we don’t always stop after †fall†, but instead we get back on that windowsill, despite our scars and bruises,and start looking down, searching for someone to catch us or somethi ng we can land on. This, in my opinion, is human nature. We don’t want to give up (ofcourse there are a loto f people who do give up, but that is already another story), we are stubborn, we know nature of things, but we are sure of that we can experiment and try to change it. † Why should some animals live much longer than human beings and yet show no signs of old age.Somehow, somewhere we had made a biological mistake.† This thought sound very interesting. We are cold the crown of nature, of all beings, but why is then do we live shorter lives than those, who are supposed to be below us . We are smarter, wiser, simply better than animals. Why don’t we live longer, for instance, why could not we day at age of 200? And again – time is evil.It will last longer, but it will kill us anyway. And if we really, even obligatory, must life that long and become ape-likes, do we really want that? Would we like to become as Jo Stoyte, who doesn’t care abo ut anything at all? I won’t. I think I would rather commit suicide, than become an animal. But question is – what went wrong in our development? Who made the mistake? I can’t explain why it is so, but I believe that it must be this way. We come into the world, we live and we die, and there is nothing wrong with it. It is nature of life. We are humans, we don’t need eternal life. We are smart and capable, buti f we could have more time, I think we won’t have any normal idea what to do with it. I believe that our world is breaking apart, there are too much bad things, catastrophes, cold-blooded people, who are willing to do everything to make moore good for themselves.I would not like to live too long to witness all that what is going to happen and what we don’t know a thing about. †If you're always scared of dying, you'll surely die. Fear's a poison; and not such a slow poison either.† This spoke to me too and it is connected with previous quotes and my thoughts. I don’t really know statistics, but I think there are nearly equal amount of people who are scared of dying and who are not. I can include me in this not scared part. Why should I be scared? I know, I will die, sooner or later. I don’t believe in any predictions, but once I filled test with title – „When you will die?†. If it is true, it will happen on 16 of January, in 2016.So, it seems that I will be able to finish my studies and maybe even work for and half a year, and then †¦ That’s it! I am gone, and how? In a car accident. But thank goodness, I don’t have a drivers licence. I think it is obvious, that I am making fun of this. I don’t believe I will day at age of 26. But if I will, I am not scared of it. I almost like my life, it isn’t bad, but it always could be better, and if it becomes better untill 2016, then death – bring it on! I don’t have self-destructive in clination. I am living here and now and I am suggesting others to do the same. Don’t do stupid things and play with your destiny, but use our days, make them worth it. Thinking of dying will kill much faster.Don’t be afraid of death, if it smells your fear, it will track you down and kill you more painfully. There were a lot of nice quotations, but because of the page limit (and if there won’t be any, I would need much more to write everything I would like), I will only write some of them down without discussing. †The real conditions at any  given moment are the subjective conditions of the people then alive†. On the human level. men live in ignorance, craving and fear. Ignorance, craving and fear result in some temporary pleasures, in many lasting miseries, in final frustration. †What is man? A nothingness surrounded by God, indigent and capable of God, filled with God, if he so desires.†In conclusion I can say, that I was interested i n these philosophical and eternal thoughts, proposed by the author. They are meaningful, they make me think and I consider that the greatest credit of studying.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

David Carson: Renowned for His Inventive Graphics

He was born September 8, 1952 in Corpus Christi, Texas. Carson and his family moved to New York City four years later. Since then he has traveled all around the world but has maintained New York as his base of operations. Carson now owns two studios; one in New York and another in Charleston, South Carolina. Because of his father, Carson traveled all over America, Puerto Rico, and the West Indies. These journeys affected him profoundly and the first signs of his talent were shown at a very young age; however, his first actual contact with graphic design was made in 1980 at the University of Arizona on a two week graphics course. He attended San Diego St. University as well as Oregon College of Commercial Art. Later on in 1983, Carson was working towards a Bachelor of Arts in Sociology when he went to Switzerland, where he attended a three-week workshop in graphic design as part of his degree. This is where he met his first great influence, who also happened to be the teacher of this course, Hans-Rudolph Lutz. He became renowned for his inventive graphics in the 1990s. Having worked as a sociology teacher and professional surfer in the late 1970s, he art directed various music, skateboarding and surfing magazines through the 1980s. As art director of surfing magazines and more famously style magazine Ray Gun (1992-5), Carson came to worldwide attention. His layouts featured distortions or mixes of ‘vernacular' typefaces and fractured imagery, rendering them almost illegible. Indeed, his maxim of the ‘end of print' questioned the role of type in the emergent age of digital design, following on from California New Wave and coinciding with experiments at the Cranbrook Academy of Art. In the later 1990s he shifted from ‘surf subculture' to corporate work for Nike, Levis, and Citibank. During the period of 1982–1987, Carson worked as a teacher in Torrey Pines High School in San Diego, California. In 1983, Carson started to experiment with graphic design and found himself immersed in the artistic and bohemian culture of Southern California. By the late eighties he had developed his signature style, using â€Å"dirty† type and non-mainstream photography. He would later be dubbed the â€Å"father of grunge. † Carson went on to become the art director of Transworld Skateboarding magazine. Among other things, he was also a professional surfer and in 1989 Carson was qualified as the 9th best surfer in the world. [1] His career as a surfer helped him to direct a surfing magazine, called Beach Culture. This magazine lasted for three years but, through the pages of Beach Culture, Carson made his first significant impact on the world of graphic design and typography with ideas that were called innovative even by those that were not fond of his work. Not afraid to break convention in one issue he used Dingbat as the font for what he considered a rather dull interview with Bryan Ferry. 2] (However, the whole text was published in a legible font at the back of the same issue of RayGun, complete with a repeat of the asterisk motif). From 1991-1992, Carson worked for Surfer magazine. A stint at How magazine (a trade magazine aimed at designers) followed, and soon Carson launched Ray Gun, a magazine of international standards which had music and lifestyle as its subject. Ray Gun made Carson very well-known and attracted new admirers to his work. In this period, journals such as the New York Times (May 1994) and Newsweek (1996) featured Carson and increased his publicity greatly. In 1995, Carson founded his own studio, David Carson Design in New York City, and started to attract major clients from all over the United States. During the next three years (1995-1998), Carson was doing work for Pepsi Cola, Ray Ban (orbs project), Nike, Microsoft, Budweiser, Giorgio Armani, NBC, American Airlines and Levi Strauss Jeans, and later worked for a variety of new clients, including AT&T, British Airways, Kodak, Lycra, Packard Bell, Sony, Suzuki, Toyota, Warner Bros. CNN, Cuervo Gold, Johnson AIDS Foundation, MTV Global, Princo, Lotus Software, Fox TV, Nissan, quiksilver, Intel, Mercedes-Benz, MGM Studios and Nine Inch Nails. He acted as the original design consultant for the tourism magazine Blue in 1997. In 2000, Carson opened a new personal studio in Charleston, South Carolina. In 2004, Carson became the Creative Director of Gibbes Museum of Art in Charleston and designed the special â€Å"Exploration† edition of Surfing Magazine and directed a television comme rcial for UMPQUA Bank in Seattle, Washington. Carson became interested in a new school of typography and photography-based graphic design and is largely responsible for popularizing the style; he inspired many young designers of the 1990s. His work does not follow â€Å"traditional† graphic design standards. Carson is emotionally attached to his creations. Carson's work is considered explorative of thoughts and ideas that become â€Å"lost† in the subconscious. Every piece is saturated, but Carson still manages to communicate both the idea and the feeling behind his design. His extensive use of combinations of typographic elements and photography led many designers to completely change their work methods and graphic designers from all around the world base their style on the new â€Å"standards† that have distinguished Carson's work. Carson's work is familiar among the generation that grew up with Raygun Magazine and its progeny such as huH and xceler8, and in general, the visually savvy MTV generation, but his work still receives criticism from a generation that refuses to engage with his connotative excesses. Carson has been one of the greatest influences on modern graphic design in the last twenty five years. He took photography and type and manipulated and twisted them together and on some level confusing the message but in reality he was drawing the eyes of the viewer deeper within the composition itself. In November 1995, Carson published his first book the End of Print. It sold over 200,000 copies in five different languages and soon became the best-selling graphic design book worldwide. His second book, 2nd Sight, followed in 1997. It is said that this book simply changed the public face of graphic design (Newsweek). In 1998, Carson worked with Professor John Kao of the Harvard Business School on a documentary entitled â€Å"The Art and Discipline of Creativity. † The third book that Carson published was Fotografiks (1999) which earned Carson the Award of Best Use of Photography in Graphic Design. Carson’s fourth book, Trek, was released in 2000. Carson has also helped in the development of The History of Graphic Design by Philip Meggs and The Encyclopedia of Surfing by Matt Warsaw.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Answers to More Questions About Usage

Answers to More Questions About Usage Answers to More Questions About Usage Answers to More Questions About Usage By Mark Nichol Confusion about words or phrases with similar connotations or constructions is common; here are several questions from DailyWritingTips.com readers about usage, and my responses. 1. What is the difference between remuneration and emolument? The words have essentially the same meaning – â€Å"compensation or payment† though remuneration also pertains to payment by a customer or client, and emolument also refers to perquisites, or perks (privileges or offers for employees such as one’s own parking space or free use of a fitness center.) 2. I wish to know when and where to use toward or towards, and what is the difference? The words are variations with identical meanings. Towards is British English, though many Americans use it, especially in conversation. Toward is preferable in formal US English. 3. In my country, bottled, aerated drinks like Coca-Cola and Pepsi are called â€Å"cold drinks† universally. But a sizable community calls them â€Å"cool drinks.† How do I convince and let them know the difference between cool and cold? Also, many people use the term action in place of acting when it comes to describing someone’s performance in a film or a play. â€Å"Cold drink† (and â€Å"cool drink†) may be universal in your country, but there are many terms for carbonated beverages, so I think any effort to try to control usage in this case is futile. As for action used as you describe, English usage evolves, and what may seem like an aberration now will often become standard vocabulary in the future. Even if action never becomes formally acceptable as a synonym for acting, its persistence as a variant is probably inevitable. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Regarding Re:Among vs. Amongst25 Idioms with Clean

Monday, November 4, 2019

Access the internal control of Shangri-la company

Access the internal control of Shangri-la company Access the internal control of Shangri-la company Internal control is defined as Systematic measures that been used by accountant and auditor to make sure the goals is achieved, conduct the business in efficient matter, safeguard of asset, to ensure that rules and regulation is being followed, completeness and accuracy of financial record and produce reliable and timely financial and management information. There are a few matters that Shangri-la concerning about of internal control such as: a. Completeness and accurancy of financial record. Shangri-la company use a system to ensure of appropriateness of business operation of the Group consisting of the Company and its subsidiaries. Chief Executive Officer of the company which is Mr Lim Beng Chee should discovered the fact and any decision that may cause a substantial damage, or act in violation of the laws, regulations or the Articles of incorporation and other acts outside the scope of the purpose to ensure that proper operation of subsidiaries is well-managed. In addition it also help to ensure the proper operation of subsidiary companies so that the reliability of financial reports by performing the maintenance, construction of internal control system in accordance with the financial statements, together with ongoing assessment, carried out necessary corrections if there are deficiencies, management shall appropriate the Company and to ensure. b. Ensure that rules and regulation is being followed. Shangri-la company always ensure that their operating business followed the rules. Information Management will make sure that they are following regulation and security guideline about Rules on the handling of personal data, Personal information protection regulation, and Information security policy by proper managing of important document. c. Ensure that the goals of company is achieved.Promote agile decision-making by the executive officers of small and further strengthen executive power. Set up the goals and objective of company so that the employee will understand and help employee achieved the company objectivity. d. The management and operating manager should segregate duties amongst executive officers and employee.The manager should divide the duties and work among their staff to make sure that objective of company is achieved. Shangri-la set up the goals for every department and their staff know their roles and responsibility for the company. e. Safeguard of asset. Shangri-la company established Risk Management Regulation clarify the department responsible for each risk category, endeavor to establish a risk management system. Established a management meeting risk, together with the corresponding consultation on matters relating to risk management, internal control report to the Commission on a regular basis for other conditions.