Thursday, October 31, 2019

Competition Policy and a Single European Market Research Paper

Competition Policy and a Single European Market - Research Paper Example Being a member of the European EMU (Economic and Monetary Union) may be defined on the basis of four aspects. First, the members are defined by a single currency. Secondly, they not only enjoy a common monetary policy, but they also share similar interest rates. Then there is the issue of budget deficit limits, which in this case has been set at 3 per cent of a member country’s GDP. Finally, members enjoy capital; market integration. Talk has been rife that CEECs (Central and Eastern European Countries) may enlist for membership of EMU. However, there are a few elements that hinder such a move. These countries are poor, with low wage and income earner. They have low populations, and their economy may at best be said to be transitory. In addition, they are also industrially different, relative to the EMU countries. In the event that the CEECs become EMU members. Chances are that price, wage and cost transparency of industrial products may be experienced (Oudenaren 2005). In add ition, there will no longer be a market barrier that exists between EMU members and non-EMU members (Ackerman 2006). This in effect will lead to an expanded market to East and Central Europe. Without a doubt, the idea of CEECs joining EMU shall have far-reaching repercussions. For starters, we might very well witness a rise in migration to west EU, because of the availability of better-paying jobs and living conditions. On the other hand, the risk of doing business could as well increase, because of the industrial differences in doing business between, on the one hand, the CEECs and on the other hand, the countries in west EU (Oudenaren 2005).

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Sociology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 6

Sociology - Essay Example These perspectives show the same problems in the society but offer contrasting views on how to solve them (Vandelay, 2009). Health hazards are always present in the society since the beginning of time. They are part of the world as much as much as the tiniest organisms are. Although they are infamous because of their effects to humanity, nobody could totally get rid of illnesses. Even scientists who have been studying about illnesses for hundreds of years already could not answer all the questions regarding the causes, symptoms and solutions of some of the illnesses that threaten human existence. But man does not seem to give up easily, as time passes by, more and more attempts to answer essential questions regarding the origins of illnesses have been done. There are some scientists who explain the origins of illnesses as an accumulated result of environmental threats, personal defects and incapability to adapt to the environment. This view has been supported in the work of Boaz (2009). Because of illnesses, some if not all of functions of a person is hampered. And this is where it gets really detrimenta l. Once a person suffers from an unknown illness, its either he lives or he dies. Although doctors could well explain the biological causes of most of the diseases using experiments, scholars think that there are a lot of other reasons why diseases exist. People have different levels of immunity from illnesses, but this is not the main reason why people suffer greatly from diseases which have been solved by other scientists already. Some people wonder why these illnesses still exist. Perhaps the best way to analyze the reason behind the existence of these illnesses is to look at the social roots of these illnesses. Some scholars say that the answers in today’s biological issues are social in nature. This means that society has a say in whatever

Sunday, October 27, 2019

The Role of the Entrepreneur in Economics

The Role of the Entrepreneur in Economics Introduction Whilst entrepreneurship has existed for centuries and has contributed greatly to the foundation of Anglo-American business development and growth, its serious academic study is of more recent origin. The major reason behind this aberration possibly lies within the tenets of traditional microeconomic theory, which connects success and failure to essentially material causes and leaves little space for an essentially subjective and unquantifiable phenomenon like entrepreneurship. International differences in living standards are, for example, attributed to â€Å"differences in national endowments of labour, capital and natural resources, which in turn stem from differences over time in rates of population growth, saving and natural resource depletion.† (Welsh, 2003, P3) In fact the field of entrepreneurial activity was likened, as recently as 1983, by a Harvard University professor to an â€Å"intellectual onion.† (Welsh, 2003, P3) â€Å"You peel it back layer by layer and when you get to the centre there is nothing there but you are crying† (Welsh, 2003, P3). Studies backed by empirical and statistical evidence however show the importance of entrepreneurial activity in creation of new jobs and of small and medium businesses. (Harper, 2003) Research also indicates the presence of a residual factor, which is extremely significant to the success of business enterprises, relates to the quality rather than the quantity of resources, as also with the differences in efficiency of resource utilisation. (Harper, 2003) Whilst such differences in quality and utilisation of resources are often associated with the quality of human capital that has been developed through education and training, recently developed entrepreneurial theory also associates human capital with the entrepreneurial abilities of the population. (Harper, 2003) The role of the entrepreneur is best gauged from a historical perspective, which in turn enables academic researchers and historians to realise that some people were right and others wrong at certain points of time. (Birley Macmillan, 1997) Such people saw opportunity where others did not; whilst being in a minority they proved the majority wrong, and by doing so, altered the course of history. Much of the earlier neglect of the role of entrepreneurs has vanished over the last few decades. Entrepreneurs like Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, the founders of Google, and Richard Branson are much admired role models; individuals who have contributed immensely to modern day society. Silicon Valley is a globally admired phenomenon and entrepreneurial activity is happening faster, and with more capital behind it, than ever before. The success achieved by the entrepreneurial community has led to their activity attracting enormous capital, not just in the United States, where stories of garage start-ups that have gone on to become billion dollar businesses have become part of folk lore, but also in many other parts of the globe. The market for venture capital offerings and Initial Public Offers has reached unprecedented heights; successful entrepreneurs have also invested heavily in other new businesses, backing competent people and supporting interesting ideas. (Welsch, 2003) Much of the enthusiasm for supporting entrepreneurship, as well as its practice, has also arisen from the growth of some extremely successful entrepreneurs into larger than life international icons, known worldwide for their enormously successful businesses, their social, economic, and political power, and, sometimes, their exaggerated lifestyles. L N Mittal the British steel tycoon, who hired the Versailles to celebrate his daughters wedding, provides an example of a successful modern day entrepreneur, ideally suited for a critical assessment of entrepreneurial practice, within its organisational, social, and personal contexts. Commentary and Analysis Mittal, the man, his life, and his company Mittal’s life is a fascinating account of the progress of an entrepreneur who grew from very simple beginnings in a conservative, deeply religious, and orthodox business community family in Calcutta (now Kolkata) to the largest steel producer in the world and the richest person to reside in the United Kingdom. Born into a medium level business family, Mittal’s early childhood, whilst austere, was not deprived. His father, a first generation entrepreneur was the owner of a steel mill in the central Indian province of Uttar Pradesh. Mittal grew up in Kolkata; where he first attended a local language school, and then went on to take a bachelor’s degree in commerce, before joining his father’s business. (D’Costa, 1999) Most members of the Rajasthani business community to which he belonged still believe in children getting into business to get practical experience immediately after obtaining a basic education, and Mittal did not even think of studying fo r an MBA like many of his peers. (D’Costa, 1999) Working in the family business for more than a decade, Mittal learnt steelmaking in Indonesia where the company had purchased an old loss making steel plant. (Balakrishnan, 2003) Turning it around successfully, he focussed on buying other loss making steel plants and making them into viable units; he separated from his family in 1994 (Balakrishnan, 2003) and in an astonishing period of fifteen years built the largest steel company in the world. Mittal’s strategy for growth was at once extremely simple and yet tremendously demanding. Concentrating on locating old, decrepit, and loss making steel mills, Mittal would procure them at bargain basement prices, modernise them with great cost effectiveness, increase their productive capacity and quality, and make them into efficient and viable units. (D’Costa, 1999) Mittal or LNM, as he is called, started buying out old and rusty companies in the early 1990s.One of his earliest coups happened in 1992 when he was able to buy the 20 year old Sibalsa mill in Mexico for USD 220 million. (Balakrishnan, 2003) This purchase was followed by mills in Trinidad, Canada, East Europe, and Africa, acquisitions that stretched his business affairs from Mexico and Canada to Romania, Kazakhstan, the Czech Republic, Algeria and Indonesia. (Balakrishnan, 2003) Apart from being known to be immensely effective in driving hard bargains, Mittal also developed a multidisciplinary team trained to make the most of dilapidated nationalised rustbuckets that had been put on the block. Many of his team members came from SAIL, the resource strapped and loss making Indian public sector steel making company whose managers had extensive experience in extracting the most from obsolete and ill maintained machinery at the least possible cost. Available for a fraction of the costs of western managers, these well knit teams of production experts would move in after the completion of an acquisition, put the plant into working order, increase its capacity significantly, train local managers, and move on to the next buy. (D’Costa, 1999) â€Å"At Ispat Sidex in the Czech Republic, production climbed from 3.04 million tonnes to 3.65 million tonnes, a year after it was acquired.† (Balakrishnan, 2003) Again at the giant Karmet Steel Works in Kazakhstan, which Mittal bought in 1995, production rose from 2.2 million tonnes in 1995 to more than 5 million tons in a few years. (Balakrishnan, 2003) Mittal’s biggest acquisition occurred in 2006 when he took over controlling interest of Luxembourg based Arcelor, then the world’s largest steel company, after a long drawn battle with the board of the target company. (Mittal Wins, 2006) Arcelor Mittal is now the largest steel company in the world. Producing 10 % of global steel output, the company operates in 60 countries, has more than 300,000 employees, and is ranked 39th on the Fortune 500 list. In 2007 it had assets of 133.6 billion US dollars, achieved sales of 105.2 billion US dollars, and achieved profits of 10.36 billion US dollars. That’s a long way to come in 15 years. Mittal’s current lifestyle belies his middle class origins. He has an eye for luxury, a fascination for opulence and revels in making extravagant lifestyle statements. His houses in London are among the most expensive in the world, the weddings of his children have been explosions of lavishness, and he is not known for charitable work. â€Å"Mittal outscored billionaires like Donald Trump of US, luxury titan Bernard Arnault of France and Andrei Melnichenko of Russia with a $60 million extravaganza in honour of his daughter Vanisha’s nuptials, Forbes magazine said in a report titled â€Å"Billionaire Weddings.† Mittal family had sent out 20-page invitations in silver boxes, while 1,000 guests were put up in a five-star Paris hotel for the five-day affair for marriage of Vanisha Mittal with Amit Bhatia in June 2004. A party was hosted at Versailles, while another event reportedly took place at a wooden castle temporarily erected in Parc de Saint-Cloud, Forbes said.† (Billionaire weddings, 2006) Proud to be Indian and still the holder of an Indian passport despite many years in London, Mittal’s charitable gestures extend to setting up a sports academy and foundation to prop up India’s pathetic sports effort and gifting successful Indian sportspersons with extravagant money prizes. Mittal’s business efforts have not been successful all the time. â€Å"There have been deals that have stayed out of reach along the way. A few years ago, the LNM Group was on the verge of clinching a deal to buy Sidor, a Venezuelan plant but found the prize snatched from it at the last moment. U.S. Steel which beat the LNM Group in the race for VSZ in Slovakia. It also beat Mittal to the draw for Sartid, a Serbian plant. His efforts to grab a share of the e-business pie also evaporated into cyberspace. He attempted to marry technology and steel by setting up an e-exchange where steel could be traded, but the effort was aborted. His venture capital fund which hoped to strike a gusher in the hi-tech sector also didnt score any big multi-bagger hits.†(Balakrishnan, 2003) Assessment in terms of Entrepreneurial Theory Various economists have attempted to explain the process of entrepreneurship in different ways. Attempting to fill in a vital gap in the market process, economists like Schumpeter, Mises, Hayek, Shackle, Lachmann and others have tried to clarify entrepreneurship as â€Å"the animating force of the market process, initiating each alteration of the existing pattern of values, plans, and expectations in the market, and carrying through the physical actions which bring about new values, plans, and expectations.† (Wood, 2005) Successful entrepreneurship is the core of market development; not only does it bring about changes of existing to future strategies, estimations, and opportunities, but also the sighting and construction of fresh future conditions that are better than choices on hand and the concrete modification of present plans to each other and to the future. In essence the entrepreneur is often regarded as a connector; the person who detects the opening of gain between two separate market members, initiates required actions for purchasing from the vendor and selling to the buyer, and captures entrepreneurial profit. There however also exist other entrepreneurial tasks, which necessarily begin with the route of watchfully perceiving the incidence of opportunity before others, followed by finer details. The definition of entrepreneurship laid down by Stevenson in 1983 as â€Å"the pursuit of opportunity beyond the resources you currently control† is much in favour at Harvard University and takes account of both the individual and the larger society of which s/he is a part. (Welsch, 2003) The individual identifies an opportunity that needs to be followed and then tries to obtain the required resources from the larger society for exploiting the opportunity. (Morris, 1998) Entrepreneurship theory has in recent years been significantly enriched by inputs from numerous researchers who have tried to analyse the phenomenon from the social, organisational and personal contexts. Welsch, (2003), states (from an investigation of histories and culture in forty countries) that (a) entrepreneurship flourishes in communities where resources are mobile (b) entrepreneurship is greater when successful members of a community reinvest excess capital in the projects of other community members, (c) entrepreneurship flourishes in communities in which the success of other community members are celebrated rather than derided and that (d) entrepreneurship is greater in communities that see change as positive rather than negative. Some of these conditions are particular to Mittal. He comes from a desert trader community, the members of which moved out to other regions a couple of hundred years ago in search of opportunities and prosperity. Over time the Marwari community, of which he is now a much celebrated member, developed very strong kinship, hereditary business expertise, internal processes of information exchange, strong informal networks through arranged marriages, and the ability to seek, spot, and exploit opportunities. Trust in such societies is created through intra-community linkages and the growth of diverse collaborative ventures where preferential treatment is usually provided to companies with same community ownership. Mittal himself married a wealthy moneylender’s daughter from the same community and his initial business efforts in Indonesia were supported by the family business and other members of the community.(Richter, 1999) Whilst he separated his business from that of his family n either he nor his family have ever expressed rancour or talked publicly about the reasons for separation except to state that he wished to follow the international route whereas the other family members wished to grow in India. .(Richter, 1999) He was the first to spot the potential available for commercial exploitation of old and loss making steel plants and could successfully put through a process of making them into productive and valuable assets. He has also had the confidence to constantly leverage his businesses taking on debt to fund the needs of acquisition and consolidation. (Harper, 2003) Much of Mittal’s entrepreneurial success in his chosen field is due to the organisation he moulded during the 1990s. Putting his trust in the people of his country rather than in creating an organisation with an international culture, Mittal stacked his team with production and finance people from India, the production people being drawn from India’s old and obsolete public sector steel plants where maintenance and operations on paper thin budgets called for gallons of ingenuity and expertise, (Balakrishnan, 2003) and the finance people invariably being sharp chartered accountants from his community who could be trusted to drive the hardest bargain and maintain total confidentiality. This team, which he personally supervises and motivates, is close knit and expert in working in alien environments and setting up new organisations. Whilst currently existing theories may be inadequate for comprehension of the vibrant interaction amongst entrepreneurship, the state, and external environmental factors, as well as the institution’s capability to assist entrepreneurship and ensuing efficacy, it does differentiate between innovative and entrepreneurial organisations, entrepreneurship involving individuals building new organisations rather than individuals who are involved with established corporations. (Koepp, 2002) Mittal’s empire has not been known for pathbreaking innovation of the type shown by Google or YouTube where entrepreneurship and innovation live closely in cosy comfort. It is known to stay with businesses in which its expertise has been built over years, and where success comes from production ingenuity and a vigilant eye on costs. Mittal’s preponderance to stay with people with whom he is culturally comfortable and whom he feels he can trust and control also denies him access to the much larger talent pool available to organisations who hire only the best regardless of their origin. It also possibly explains the reasons behind the failures of ventures that attempted to go beyond the pale of steel production, for example the lack of success in his attempts to set up an e-business, an e-steel trading exchange, and a venture capital fund. Entrepreneurship theory also essentially focuses on the entrepreneurial psyche, i.e. the fundamental mental and attitudinal differences that distinguish entrepreneurs from others. Peter Drucker and Frank Knight associated entrepreneurship with the willingness to take risks and spend time and capital in pursuit of ideas and convictions, especially in situations of true uncertainty about outcomes. (Welsch, 2003) Shackle, Lachmann, and other economists however theorise that the true entrepreneur does not bear risk. (Wood, 2003) Entrepreneurs are actually so sure of the trueness of their future forecasts that they believe that the future will roll out exactly as they anticipate; whilst knowing that they operate in situations of uncertainty they have the confidence in their ability to make correct forecasts. Although this phenomenon has been interpreted by Mises to mean that entrepreneurs are oblivious to all else but profits, a consensus is building on the theory that whilst entrepreneur s are aware of uncertainties, they shoulder risks aside in their pursuit of their convictions. Entrepreneurs are also associated with creativity, resourcefulness and strong self belief, desire for new ideas, openness to change, inherent competitiveness, motivation, energy, and openness to criticism. (Morris, 1998) Entrepreneurship is also associated with passion, commitment, and perseverance. Whilst it is improbable that all successful entrepreneurs are so gifted, many of them possess some of these qualities in abundance. Research studies however do not pay much attention to issues like factors like luck and fortune in successful entrepreneurship and the need for the entrepreneur to be in the right place at the right time. Nor do they associate it much with greed, ambition, the tendency to cut corners, and to work on the periphery of rules and procedures. Microsoft has been accused time and again of stifling competition and has been involved in anti-trust legislation. Many questions have been raised about Mittal’s donations to the labour party and the poor conditions of workers in his factories. Whilst much is made of the positive qualities of entrepreneurs it is but fair to recognise that ambition and greed contribute significantly to their mental makeup and strong institutions and regulatory procedures are needed for society to benefit from the dynamism and vitality they bring to business. Conclusion Mittal in his personal life is known to be a committed family man and has groomed his son to succeed him in future. Close associates say that he is hard working and driven by his bottom lines. Whilst detractors feel that he has been helped by the phenomenal increase in the demand for steel and that he was in the right place at the right time when large numbers of dilapidated steel plants were being put on the block, the enormous and sustained success of his enterprise proves that there is much to his success beyond simple luck. His organisation building capacity is said to be remarkable and he provides his engineers a stable and financially beneficial working environment. Entrepreneurship theory is also about vision; the capacity to forecast future happenings with great perspicacity. (George Zahra, 2002) This is where Mittal scores. More than anything else people associate him with extraordinary vision, the ability to see the need of the future and build his grand plan accordingly. (Balakrishnan, 2003) Whilst he has been distracted from time to time by plans for other businesses, his focus has been sharp on the need of the steel industry to consolidate and the inability of small and medium sized steel businesses to cope with the demands of the present and the future. Although the man is now regarded more as a business giant, concerned with the consolidation of his industry rather than with starting new business ventures, he stands as a classic case of a successful entrepreneur and of the tenets of entrepreneurship theory. Word Count: 3160 and References References Balakrishnan, P, (2003), L.N. Mittal, the king of steel,, Retrieved April24, 2008 from Billionaire weddings: Mittal on top, (2006), The Financial Express, Retrieved August 24, 2008 from Bird, B., Brush, C. (2002), A Gendered Perspective on Organizational Creation, Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 26(3), 41+ Birley, S. Macmillan, I. C. (Eds.), (1997). Entrepreneurship in a Global Context, London: Routledge Does a Society Which Fears Failure Stifle the Entrepreneurial Spirit. (2005, June 29). The Birmingham Post (England), p. 17 Ford, N. (2008, March). Mittal Wrapping Up Africa? as the Pace of Asian Investment in African Raw Materials Begins to Pick Up, Indias Arcelor Mittal the Worlds Largest Steel Producer, Has Announced New Investment in West African Iron Ore Mining. What Are the Implications for Africa? Report by Neil Ford. African Business 54+ Gartner, W. B. (2001). Is There an Elephant in Entrepreneurship? Blind Assumptions in Theory Development, Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 25(4), 27+ George, G., Zahra, S. A, (2002), Culture and Its Consequences for Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 26(4), 5+ Harper, D. A. (2003), Foundations of Entrepreneurship and Economic Development, New York: Routledge Henderson, S. (2008, March). Growing Up CEO: Parents Can Nurture a Childs Entrepreneurial Spirit, Ebony, 63, 170+ INSIDE THE WORLD OF THE MEN OF STEEL; Dynasty of Steel: The Billionaire Lakshmi Mittal with His Son Aditya at the Familys [Pounds Sterling]57 Million London Home Opposite Kensington Palace. Lakshmi Says of His Son I Am Following in His Footsteps. He Is the Future. (2007, September 11). The Evening Standard (London, England), p. 18 Jelinek, M., Litterer, J. A. (1995), Toward Entrepreneurial Organizations: Meeting Ambiguity with Engagement. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 19(3), 137+ Koepp, R. (2002). Clusters of Creativity: Enduring Lessons on Innovation and Entrepreneurship from Silicon Valley and Europes Silicon Fen. Chichester, England: Wiley Mittal Wins Battle for Arcelor to Create Worlds Biggest Steel Firm. (2006, June 29). Manila Bulletin, p. NA Morris, M. H. (1998). Entrepreneurial Intensity: Sustainable Advantages for Individuals, Organizations, and Societies. Westport, CT: Quorum Books Muhammad, T. K. (1997, January). From Buppie to Biz-Wiz: Forget Corporate America Generation X Is Choosing the Entrepreneurial Path to Success. Black Enterprise, 27, 44+ D’Costa, A, (1999), The Global Restructuring of the Steel Industry: Innovations, Institutions, and Industrial Change. London: Routledge Richter, F., (1999), Business Networks in Asia: Promises, Doubts, and Perspectives. Westport, CT: Quorum Books Schonberg, S. (2006, Spring). Europes New Protectionism: A Former Policy Insider Outlines the Disturbing Trend. The International Economy, 20, 46+ Taylor, R. R. (1988). Exceptional Entrepreneurial Women: Strategies for Success. New York: Praeger Theil, S. (2008, January/February), Europes Philosophy of Failure: In France and Germany, Students Are Being Forced to Undergo a Dangerous Indoctrination. Taught That Economic Principles Such as Capitalism, Free Markets, and Entrepreneurship Are Savage, Unhealthy, and Immoral, These Children Are Raised on a Diet of Prejudice and Bias. Rooting It out May Determine Whether Europes Economies Prosper or Continue to Be Left Behind. Foreign Policy 54+ Welsch, H. P, (2003). Entrepreneurship: The Way Ahead. New York: Routledge Wood, J.S, (2005), The development and present state of the theory of entrepreneurship in product and asset markets by Knight, Hayek, Schumpeter, Mises, Kirzner, Shackle and Lachmann, Austrian Scholars Conference 2005, Retrieved August 24, 2008 from

Friday, October 25, 2019

The Division of Honors and Journeying Among the Gods :: Christianity God Religion Essays

The Division of Honors and Journeying Among the Gods missing works cited In this midterm essay I will discuss why Gods Journey. I believe that Gods journey for two reasons. One reason is to seek out honor for themselves. The other reason is to regain honors they have lost. To demonstrate this I will first discuss the journeys of Hades in the Homeric hymn "To Demeter" comparing it to the journey of Hermes in "To Hermes". I fell that both of these companion journeys were attempts by these Gods to win honors they did not already have. Next I will look at the companion journeys of Demeter and Apollo. I think that both of these Gods journeyed to regain honors they'd previously had, but lost. Lastly I will conclude by showing how all four Gods had to compromise and divide up the honors amongst themselves. "Earth with its wide roads gaped and then over the Nysian field the lord and All receiver, the many named son of Kronos, sprang out upon her with his immortal horses...Not an unseemly bridegroom among the immortals is Aidoneus, Lord on Many, your own brother from the same seed; to his share fell honor when in the beginning a triple division was made, and he dwells among those over whom his lot made him lord" (To Demeter 16- 18, 83-87). I think that these two sets of lines show that Hades viewed Persephone as a prize. Honor was one of the things Hades won when he, Zeus, and Poseidon divided up the world. Thus Hades felt justified in journeying up from the underworld to earth to claim Persephone as his bride. I feel that he felt he deserved to have her, according to his logic, because honor was something he was entitled to as a God. I feel that Hermes journey was similar to that of Hades in that he traveled in order to win honor for himself and for his Mother Maia. "A watcher by night and a gate keeper, soon destined to show forth glorious deeds among the immortal gods. Born at dawn, by midday he played his lyre, and at evening he stole the cattle of far shooting Apollon...But I shall be master of whatever skill is best to provide for you and me forever; we shall not suffer, as you bid me, to stay right here and be the only two immortals not plied with gifts and prayers.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

How Tension Is Created in the Play “a View from the Bridge? Essay

In this essay I am going to discuss how tension is created in the play â€Å"A View from the Bridge† written by Arthur Miller, but more specifically how tension is created at the end of Act One. A View from the Bridge is set in Red Hook, New York full of Italian Americans who struggle to earn a living. In the 1950’s, Italy was a very poor country however immigration was made illegal before this, in 1946. The play goes on to tell us about the Carbone family, an American family consisting of a couple – Eddie and Beatrice and her sister’s orphaned daughter; Catherine. Having raised Catherine since she was a small girl, Eddie is extremely possessive and controlling of her, which we come to see more and more as the play progresses. When Beatrice’s cousins Marco and Rodolfo come to stay with the family illegally, to try and get work and a sufficient amount of money to send back home to Italy, tensions rises as Eddie feels threatened as Marco’s alpha male status, which causes a shift in balance in the household. As we read the play, we come to see how Eddie’s petty insecurity gets the better of him, causing an inevitable tragic ending. Towards the end of Act One, we see the tension in the Carbone household reach a critical level, and it is clear for all to see. The characters attempt to ignore, hide and even relieve this tension by all means necessary, although whatever they do seems to make the atmosphere even more tension filled. Relationships between certain characters – such as the one between Catherine, Rodolfo, Eddie and Beatrice and the relationship between Eddie and Marco create tension in different ways, and sound/music, action, movement and gesture all contribute to the rising tension at the end of Act One. We see many different examples of tension when it comes to the relationship between Catherine, Rodolfo, Eddie and Beatrice. For example, Catherine’s first words in this scene are â€Å"You know where they went? † This automatically causes accidental tension between Rodolfo/Marco and Eddie because Catherine is exclaiming to Eddie that the men have travelled, making Eddie feel angry as he doesn’t to seem in any way or form weak compared to Rodolfo and Marco. In Eddie’s eyes, he sees this as the two brothers have something over him, so now he tries in any shape or form to ‘win back’ Catherine. As well as this, the way Catherine says this seems to be with pure enthusiasm and excitement which shows how naive she is to her surroundings. This reflects Catherine’s general behaviour as she is nearly 18, and doesn’t seem to notice the effect of her actions on other people. Additionally we can clearly see Eddie’s resentment of Rodolfo when Rodolfo mistakenly angers Eddie when he says â€Å"lemons are green†. This is said in response to Eddie trying to belittle the brothers and imply their trade is dishonest, so when Rodolfo says â€Å"lemons are green† this makes Eddie look the fool and we already know that Eddie feels bitter about the two brothers, especially Rodolfo so when he makes him look stupid, automatic tension is created. It does so in the way that Eddie doesn’t want to be outsmarted by Rodolfo because he doesn’t want to look as if Rodolfo is superior to him. When Eddie has a go at Rodolfo for taking Catherine out to the movies, and returning home later than she usually does, Eddie is clearly on the brink of a full blown rage, and when he starts to tell Marco this, Marco instantly orders, not tells Rodolfo that he will from now be back home in time. This specifically doesn’t create tension but shows us more of Marco’s alpha male position, which Eddie is obviously threatened by. What does create tension is when Beatrice defends Rodolfo when Eddie is trying to prove it point that Rodolfo is the cause of Catherine staying out late by saying â€Å"Well, he didn’t exactly drag her off Eddie. † This shows to us the Beatrice is defending Rodolfo as she is disagreeing completely with what Eddie, her husband is saying. This obviously creates tension because as a wife, Beatrice is meant to support and agree with her husband, however she is disagrees with what Eddie has said, as she believes that Eddie has inappropriate feelings towards Catherine, so Beatrice will obviously want to get Catherine out of the picture as soon as possible so she can feel that she has ‘her husband back’. After this Eddie starts to openly criticise Rodolfo in front of the household, but more especially it’s directed at Catherine, so Eddie can convince her that Rodolfo lacks any type of masculinity. He does this by saying â€Å"He’s a cook, too! †¦ He sings, he cooks, he could make dresses.. † by saying this he is implying that these stereotypically feminine skills mean the Rodolfo is no kind of man, or at least in Eddie’s eyes which means he isn’t right for Catherine. As well as this although Eddie never actually says it in the play, he often implies that Rodolfo may be gay, which is what he may be trying to do here. This creates tension because although Rodolfo doesn’t clearly see it, Eddie is openly mocking him, and making him look like less of a man. The tone of which Eddie says this in is obviously meant to knock Rodolfo but he is totally oblivious to Eddie’s growing resentment, which creates more tension as it angers Eddie as it doesn’t spark a reaction. Miller uses music and sound as well as dialogue to show the tension at the end of the scene. For example when Catherine puts the record â€Å"Paper Doll† on and dances with Rodolfo, many forms of tension are created here. For instance, the lyrics of the song are all about someone taking away someone from another person, who is exactly what Eddie feels Rodolfo is doing to Catherine. So the lyrics in the record will cause tension as Eddie believes this is what is happening, and it’s almost ironic that Catherine chooses this record to play. The most obvious form of tension when Catherine and Rodolfo dance, is simply the fact that they’re dancing. As we know Rodolfo and Eddie were not having a nice conversation before when Catherine suggested dancing, and Rodolfo was very weary of Eddie’s behaviour. So the fact that they’re being quite close and intimate in front of Eddie is bound to cause tension as Eddie doesn’t like Rodolfo, so the fact they’re dancing is bound to cause tension. Also, the fact that Rodolfo has spent money which he should be saving (like Marco is) annoys Eddie because he feels that the two brother should be keeping a low profile instead of publicly making themselves known, and by shopping this means that Rodolfo has gone out, which means people would have seen him and etc. So this creates tension as it annoys Eddie that he’s off gallivanting buying records and clothes, instead of working hard and keeping a low profile. After tension being made by music, Rodolfo turns the music off abruptly, which almost acts as Rodolfo’s reaction to what Eddie says. The lack of music means that everything that is said can be clearly heard, and it means the characters have nothing to ‘hide’ behind. This creates tension as the lack of music symbolises Rodolfo’s patience with Eddie, as his comment was unjustified and Rodolfo obviously felt offended enough to turn off the music. Action, movement and gesture are additionally used to reveal tension in the household, for example when Eddie is talking about Rodolfo and how Eddie is different (and better) than Rodolfo, he has â€Å"unconsciously twisting the newspaper into a tight role†¦until it eventually tears in two†¦Ã¢â‚¬  This automatically creates tension as it is if Eddie has subconsciously been showing them all his true feelings of Rodolfo. As these are stage directions, we can indefinitely see the violence that Eddie is holding on to, and this symbolises his feelings towards Rodolfo. After this Eddie tries to teach Rodolfo boxing and instead, ends up punching him in the face. Eddie obviously does this to show off, to prove to everyone how masculine he is and how much better he is and weak Rodolfo is. He does this to make up for Rodolfo’s earlier comment where Eddie felt as if he was being made a mockery of, and this gives Eddie a chance to show off his physical strength against Rodolfo. In conclusion, Arthur Miller creates tension through the use of stage directions, dialogue and many other different techniques. He often uses the stage directions to symbolise the physical status of his characters, which ultimately reflects subconsciously how they really feel about one another, and this is what really shows us how much tension there is created and how much drama there is at the end of Act One.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Food & Drink in the Elizabethan Era Essay

Food and drinks were different depending on your status, and wealth. â€Å"In the early medieval times meat was a sign of wealth. † (Elizabethan Food). What you hunted for food depended on your status. â€Å"Only Lords and Nobles were allowed to hunt deer, dear, boar, hares, and rabbits† (The Last Colony). In the Elizabethan Era, most of the meals were cooked using an open flame, by: â€Å"spit roasting, being fried, baking, boiling, smoking, and salting. † (Elizabethan food). Salt was used to preserve the meat because they would kill the animals before winter and the meat would have to last when they weren’t eating it. â€Å"Peacock feathers were used to decorate the food for the banquets that Royalty had† (Elizabethan Food). Banquets then and now are still the same; they both are made for special occasions and made to look good with special effects. Most food had to be purchased from markets, meat from livestock markets, dairy from large cities, and vegetables from large cities. Many Lords and Nobles had rotten and black teeth, because of their diets and how they snubbed vegetables and only ate sugary foods. â€Å"Water was not clean in the middle ages and people therefore drank wine and ale† (Elizabethan Food). Different flavors were added to ales and beer for better tastes. Most of the diets in the Elizabethan times were bread, meat and fish, but biscuits were a convenience food, (used when they were a little hungry and needed a snack). The People from the Elizabethan times usually ate three times a day, just as we do now.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Biography of Charles Darwin

Biography of Charles Darwin Charles Darwin  (Feb. 12, 1809 to April 19, 1882) holds a unique place in history as the foremost proponent of the theory of evolution. Indeed, to this day, Darwin is the most famous evolution scientist and is credited with developing the theory of evolution through natural selection. While he lived a relatively quiet and studious life, his writings were controversial in their day and still routinely spark controversy. As an educated young man, he embarked on an astounding voyage of discovery aboard a Royal Navy ship. The strange animals and plants he saw in remote places inspired his deep thinking about how life might have developed. When he published his masterpiece, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, he profoundly shook the scientific world. Darwins influence on modern science is impossible to overstate. Fast Facts: Charles Darwin Occupation: Naturalist and BiologistKnown For: Creating the Theory of Evolution, also known as DarwinismBorn: Feb. 12, 1809  in Shrewsbury, United KingdomDied: April 19, 1882 in Downe, United KingdomEducation: Christs College, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Bachelor of Arts, 1831; Master of Arts,1836Published Works: On the Origin of the Species, The Descent of Man, The Voyage of the BeagleSpouse: Emma WedgwoodChildren: William Erasmus, Anne Elizabeth, Mary Eleanor, Henrietta Emma (Etty), George Howard, Elizabeth, Francis, Leonard, Horace, Charles Waring   Early Life Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, England. His father was a medical doctor, and his mother was the daughter of the famous potter Josiah Wedgwood. Darwin’s mother died when he was 8, and he was essentially raised by older sisters. He was not a brilliant student as a child but went on to study at The University of Edinburgh in Scotland, intending to become a doctor. Darwin took a strong dislike to medical education and eventually studied at Cambridge. He planned to become an Anglican minister before becoming intensely interested in botany. He received a degree in 1831. Voyage of the Beagle On the recommendation of a college professor, Darwin was accepted to travel on the second voyage of the H.M.S. Beagle. The ship was embarking on a scientific expedition to South America and islands of the South Pacific, leaving in late December 1831. The Beagle returned to England nearly five years later, in October 1836. Darwins position on the ship was peculiar. A former captain of the vessel had become despondent during a long scientific voyage because, it was assumed, he had no intelligent person to converse with while at sea. The British Admiralty thought that sending an intelligent young gentleman along on a voyage would serve a combined purpose: He could study and make records of discoveries while also providing intelligent companionship for the captain. Darwins famous journey allowed him time to study natural specimens from across the globe and collect some to study back in England. He also read books by Charles Lyell and Thomas Malthus, which influenced his early thoughts on evolution. In all, Darwin spent more than 500 days at sea and about 1,200 days on land during the trip. He studied plants, animals, fossils, and geological formations and wrote his observations in a series of notebooks. During long periods at sea, he organized his notes. Upon returning to England, Darwin married his first cousin Emma Wedgwood and began years of researching and cataloging his specimens. At first, Darwin was reluctant to share his findings and ideas about evolution. It wasnt until 1854 that he collaborated with Alfred Russel Wallace to jointly present the idea of evolution and natural selection. The two men were scheduled to present jointly to the Linnaean Society meeting in 1858. However, Darwin decided to not attend as one of his children was gravely ill. (The child died shortly thereafter.) Wallace also did not attend the meeting due to other conflicts. Their research was nevertheless presented by others at the conference, and the scientific world was intrigued by their findings. Early Writings and Influences Three years after returning to England, Darwin published Journal of Researches, an account of his observations during the expedition aboard the Beagle. The book was an entertaining account of Darwins scientific travels and was popular enough to be published in successive editions. Darwin also edited five volumes titled Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle, which contained contributions by other scientists. Darwin himself wrote sections dealing with the distribution of animal species and geological notes on fossils he had seen. The voyage on the Beagle was, of course, a highly significant event in Darwin’s life, but his observations on the expedition were hardly the only influence on the development of his theory of natural selection. He was also greatly influenced by what he was reading. In 1838 Darwin read an Essay on the Principle of Population, which the British philosopher Thomas Malthus had written 40 years earlier. The ideas of Malthus helped Darwin refine his own notion of survival of the fittest. Malthus had been writing about overpopulation and discussed how some members of society were able to survive difficult living conditions. After reading Malthus, Darwin continued collecting scientific samples and data, eventually spending 20 years refining his own thoughts on natural selection. Publication of His Masterpiece Darwin’s reputation as a naturalist and geologist had grown throughout the 1840s and 1850s, yet he had not revealed his ideas about natural selection widely. Friends urged him to publish them in the late 1850s. And it was the publication of an essay by Wallace expressing similar thoughts that encouraged Darwin to write a book setting out his own ideas. In November 1859, Darwin published the book that secured his place in history, On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection. Darwin knew his views would be controversial, especially with those who believed heavily in religion, as he was somewhat of a spiritual man himself. His first edition of the book did not talk extensively about human evolution but did hypothesize that there was a common ancestor for all life. It wasnt until much later when he published The Descent of Man that Darwin really delved into how humans had evolved. This book was probably the most controversial of all his works. Darwins work instantly became famous and revered by scientists across the globe and his theories had an almost immediate impact upon religion, science, and society at large. Darwin was not the first person to propose that plants and animals adapt to circumstances and evolve over eons of time. But his book put forth his hypothesis in an accessible format and led to controversy. Later Life and Death On the Origin of Species was published in several editions, with Darwin periodically editing and updating material in the book. He also wrote a few more books on the topic in the remaining years of his life. While the scientific and religious communities debated his works, Darwin lived a quiet life in the English countryside, content to conduct botanical experiments. He came to be highly respected, regarded as a grand old man of science. Darwin died on April 19, 1882, and was honored by being buried in Westminster Abbey in London. At the time of his death, Darwin was hailed as a national hero.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Free Essays on Euthenasia

Euthanasia is often called â€Å"mercy killing†. It is intentionally making someone die, rather than allowing that person to die naturally. It is sometimes the act of ending someone’s life who is terminally ill, or is suffering in severe pain. Euthanasia is mostly illegal in the world today. Euthanasia can be considered a form of suicide, if the person afflicted with the problem actively does it. The person volunteering to commit the act to that person can also consider it a form of murder. The positive side of Euthanasia is that it ends a person’s suffering in this world. Many physicians and psychiatrists believe that it may a humane act. From a virtue ethics point of view, it may be appropriate. What we seek in human existence is to be happy, and find happiness. Suffering from a terminal illness, or affliction, could inhibit one’s happiness in life. If the goal is to be happy, then Euthanasia would be an answer for this person. Euthanasia may even bring about happiness in that it is what the person desires and wants, in order to no longer to be a burden to his/her family. Also, Euthanasia would stop the pain and not prolong the dying process. In the utilitarian point of view we all have a duty to our happiness, and a duty to the society. Euthanizing a person based on the society aspect makes sense. With greater and greater emphasis put on managed care today, many doctors are at a financial risk when they provide treatments to patients who are in the dying process. These patients may also feel like not becoming a burden to the society at large, and choose to fulfill a duty – Euthanasia. If the person is in a coma or is brain dead, that person is no use to himself or herself, or society anymore. Euthanasia is a viable method to end an otherwise futile attempt at recovery. The family of the person being euthanized may not want their family members in pain – to suffer. It can be a family duty to do the right thing for the p... Free Essays on Euthenasia Free Essays on Euthenasia Euthanasia is often called â€Å"mercy killing†. It is intentionally making someone die, rather than allowing that person to die naturally. It is sometimes the act of ending someone’s life who is terminally ill, or is suffering in severe pain. Euthanasia is mostly illegal in the world today. Euthanasia can be considered a form of suicide, if the person afflicted with the problem actively does it. The person volunteering to commit the act to that person can also consider it a form of murder. The positive side of Euthanasia is that it ends a person’s suffering in this world. Many physicians and psychiatrists believe that it may a humane act. From a virtue ethics point of view, it may be appropriate. What we seek in human existence is to be happy, and find happiness. Suffering from a terminal illness, or affliction, could inhibit one’s happiness in life. If the goal is to be happy, then Euthanasia would be an answer for this person. Euthanasia may even bring about happiness in that it is what the person desires and wants, in order to no longer to be a burden to his/her family. Also, Euthanasia would stop the pain and not prolong the dying process. In the utilitarian point of view we all have a duty to our happiness, and a duty to the society. Euthanizing a person based on the society aspect makes sense. With greater and greater emphasis put on managed care today, many doctors are at a financial risk when they provide treatments to patients who are in the dying process. These patients may also feel like not becoming a burden to the society at large, and choose to fulfill a duty – Euthanasia. If the person is in a coma or is brain dead, that person is no use to himself or herself, or society anymore. Euthanasia is a viable method to end an otherwise futile attempt at recovery. The family of the person being euthanized may not want their family members in pain – to suffer. It can be a family duty to do the right thing for the p... Free Essays on Euthenasia Euthanasia Euthanasia has been a controversial topic for quite some time but made a huge impact in the media when Dr. Jack Kevorkian sentenced to a 10-25 year prison term for giving a lethal injection to Thomas Youk. Euthanasia, meaning â€Å"good death† is the intentional killing by act or omission of a dependent human being for his or her alleged benefit. People today try to differentiate between the distinction of killing someone and allowing someone to die. When we look at this topic some questions are raised; specifically who gets to decide when you should live or die? At what point does an individual get to end his or her life with active euthanasia, which the immediate cause of death is not the patients’ disease but something that is done or given to the patient to cause his or her death. One argument on euthanasia from a Utilitarianism perspective, says that if the pain of one person is causing pain to others, that it is in the best interest to end that person’s life. If a persons’ life has lost all value and is causing the person nothing but pain, then why not end the pain for them and their families. The philosopher James Rachels states: â€Å"Terminal patients sometimes suffer pain so horrible that it can hardly be comprehended by those who have not actually experienced it†¦ The argument form mercy says: euthanasia is justified because it provides an end to that.† (Velasquez, 2005) Some terminally ill patients are in unbearable pain and/or experience an intolerably poor quality of life. They would prefer to end their life rather than continue until their body gives in. Who is anyone to deny them their wish or right? I believe that the person’s right whether they live or die comes from the mere factor that we have free will and choice. Who is someone to say that you cannot die? A prime example of this controversial topic is about a woman named Teri Schiavo, who spent the last 15 years of her life ...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Balanced Score

Introducing Balance Score In this article I will explain your critical vision, mission, values, and critical thinking on how to achieve your goals from SWOTT analysis. Vision Our vision is to make a well-respected, well-respected company that creates national fashion while providing handbags and accessories in the Bible in manga characters and the Bible. Vision defines the organization's future goals. It reflects an optimistic view of the organization's future. The Balanced Scorecard is defined as a strategic planning and management system that aligns business activities with the organization's vision statement. With simpler and more realistic terms, the Balanced Scorecard attempts ambiguous translation in anticipation of the company's mission. This statement will better manage the usefulness of the business at all levels. To create your own Balanced Scorecard, the advantage of using a Balanced Scorecard for a corporate mission statement is that you can easily display a summary of fi nancial indicators and non-financial indicators compared to each goal. The mix (expressed in many words many details ...) report. After implementing balanced scorecards within your organization, the process should improve. One of the best tools a manager has is a balanced scorecard. Do you remember the 5th week of the bowling alley manager? Create a balanced scorecard for him and explain how to use the balanced scorecard to help him measure and probably improve the problem. It is important to deal with how the scorecard approach fits the administrative control functions. Specifically, please use the scorecard to review manager's questions. How can we solve problems that occurred in branch offices? Balanced scorecards are the most commonly used management tool in an organization. Ryanair's strategic management system can be described with a balanced scorecard. To improve operational efficiency, Ryanair has focused on four main areas: finance, customers, business processes, and learni ng and development. In order to achieve the goal of becoming the lowest cost supplier to the European aviation industry, Ryanair set standards for cost management activities. Since it is currently the industry's lowest cost supplier, we developed our own benchmark. For example, in 2003, we reduced the cost of wheelchair services by providing third-party wheelchair suppliers that provide wheelchairs to passengers.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Primate Observation Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Primate Observation - Research Paper Example The unjust treatments subjected to the non-human primate species denies present and future humanity the chance to study and understand the closest relatives of the human species. Evidently, the study of the non-human primates such as gorillas, apes and chimpanzees offer insightful learning opportunities pertaining to their physical and social characteristics as well as relationship with human behaviour. To this end, the subsequent sections will delve into the primate description of two major non-human species. These are the gorillas and chimpanzees. The description will examine their social and mating structures, food acquisition strategies and intelligent levels. Furthermore, the literature herein will offer comparative analysis between the gorillas and chimpanzees as well examine their regional distribution. The final section will delve into the relationship between the two non-primates and the understanding of human behaviour. Primate Descriptions a) Gorillas The gorilla primates are evidently the largest cohort of the primate family. They also exhibit the closest relation with humans as 98% of their DNA is in conformity to man’s DNA (Jurmain, 157). Gorillas are mostly land dwelling animals since they do not climb trees. The gorillas are classified into two different species with four sub-species that are determined based on their physical characteristics and their geographic location. The first species is Gorilla gorilla with sub-species of G. g. gorilla, from western lowland and G. g. diehli from cross river (Taylor, 100). The second species is Gorilla beringei with sub-species of G. b. Graueri also known as eastern lowland and G. b. beringei also known as mountain gorilla (Taylor, 100). To this end, the subspecies vary in their habitats with distinct physical characteristics and different numbers of populations. In this regard, the Western gorilla and Eastern gorilla species are classified based on their geographic location within their African hab itat. The Eastern Gorilla has two subspecies known as the Eastern lowland gorilla and Mountain gorilla. The Eastern lowland gorilla is located in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Jurmain, 159). Their population is classified as endangered with less than 3000. Their physical characteristics place them as the largest among the gorilla species. They also have shorter hair and teeth compared to the mountain gorillas as well as possessing the longest arms. On the other hand, the mountain gorilla is classified as critically endangered as their population currently stands at less than 720. Their physical characteristics are consistent with angular nostrils, a wide face and a large skull. Moreover, it has longer hair and larger body compared to the eastern lowland gorilla (Taylor, 102). The two sub-species of the Western Gorilla are Western Lowland Gorilla and Cross River Gorilla. The Western lowland gorilla is also classified as critically endangered with a population of less than 100,000 (Taylor, 105). Its species is located in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Furthermore, its physical characteristics entail a silver-back colouring on the males which also covers the thighs. The hair on their heads is also redder. On the other hand, the Cross River Gorilla has a population of approximately 300 and labelled as critically e

Case Study on South West Airlines Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

On South West Airlines - Case Study Example The company is also a fun place for people to work and is regarded very highly by employees. There are many aspects of this success of Southwest Airlines. In this essay we will present a SWOT analysis alongside with an analysis of porter’s five forces. This will also include the financials of the company. The organizational culture of the company and its operations and leadership will be discussed. Issues the company is facing currently will also be discussed and recommendations will be made. SWOT Analysis Southwest Airlines Southwest Airline has displayed cost leadership in the airline industry by turning cost effectiveness into profits. The culture of the company is also in line with the core values of the airline. Below an in depth view of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats facing the company will be taken. Strengths The most impressive thing about Southwest Airlines is its financial records. The company is yet to report a loss on its balance sheets and this i s a big achievement considering the ups and downs airline industry in US faces. Since 1972 the company has given annual returns of around 25%. This shows the impressive performance of the company. The airline believes in friendliness and love in customer relationships as well as employees. One of the main reasons of success of the company is its employees. The friendly culture of the company illicit the best out of every employee of Southwest and that is why innovative ideas are given by lower and middle level employees. This is one of the reasons of Southwest Airline’s success. The management of Southwest Airlines has done an amazing job in crafting its company’s strategy. The strategy of cost leadership has done wonders for the company and I personally think that the idea of being cost effective in the airline industry great. Usually airlines have huge operational costs so they do not go for such a strategy but Southwest has shown the world that this can be done. Thi s strategy has proven itself to be a winning strategy. Southwest Airlines reported a profit of USD178 million in 2008 (Bloomberg, 2011). This was the time when recession had badly hit the US economy but still the company was able to reap profits. The operating expense of the company have not grown significantly even during recession. Operating expenses were $1,280 million in 2007 while in 2008 they grew to $1,385 million. Also the revenue in 2008 increased as compared to 2007. In 2007 revenue figure was $9,587 million and in 2008 it grew to $11,023 million. The CGS also has grown accordingly, in 2007 it was $7,235 million and in 2008 it was $8,590 million (Bloomberg, 2011). This shows that the costs of Southwest have not increased significantly. The company has tried to differentiate its policies from its competitors by doing everything in its own way. Employees were not fired in tough times, cost cutting was given attention rather than value addition, flights for shorter routes was started and a friendly work culture was introduced in the company. All this was not the usual trend in the industry but this became the basis for Southwest’s success. The company has proven that conventional thinking has led many airlines into huge loses (Freiberg & Freiberg, 1997). One of the operating practices in the company is to schedule more flights a day and pilots work an hour more than in other airline companies (Mouawad, J. 2010). The company also pays its

Chicago Bulls Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Chicago Bulls - Case Study Example The law on privacy of medical information requires extreme confidentiality of individual medical information. Individual sensitive medical information should remain with the involved party and confidential. The employment act requires employers to bargain in good faith over any terms that address a mandatory subject such as working conditions. An employer requiring an employee to undergo a DNA test is likely to use the test results as a basis for employment discrimination. As much as the employer is concerned about the wellness of the employee, it is not ethical for him or her to insist on a DNA test for an unwilling employee since it is infringement of his or her privacy. Unless such a requirement was included in the collective bargaining and agreed upon by all parties, it is not ethical. An employer may request an employee to undergo a DNA test if the employee is operating dangerous machinery or piloting a plane due to his concern to identify any genetic illness that may pose the employee and other people in danger. Such request should be made in reasonable grounds since its invasion of individual privacy. The employee’s actions may be unethical to the extent that he does not respect the employee’s privacy and employment law that is against discrimination on genetic basis. Unless there is collective bargaining among all involved parties and consent is given, it is unfair to the employee, but also a good ground to show employer’s concern on employee’s safety in the work place but not the most

Thursday, October 17, 2019

I am a nurse nursing students learn the art and science of nursing Article

I am a nurse nursing students learn the art and science of nursing - Article Example The meaning of experience came through in five themes that were threads throughout the responses from the students (Idczak, 2007). The first was fear of interacting with patients in which nursing students talked about how they felt about their first interactions with patients. Those feelings included fear, anxiety, nervousness, and lack of confidence. They did not have the confidence in how they might respond to feel comfortable. They found that they were afraid to ask RN's on the floor and so they were dealing with these feelings alone. Developing confidence was a second issue in which nursing students felt insecure, however, most of them felt that if they performed skills well that their level of confidence improved rapidly and that this confidence then helped with their interactions with patients. Becoming aware of oneself was felt to be something that was needed in order to interact well with patients. These nursing students felt that they developed self awareness through : "reflecting on their thought, reflecting on an interaction with a patient, comparing their thoughts to the actions of another nurse, and seeing inner role conflict" (Idczak, 2007 pg. 69). Nursing students must connect their new found knowledge of the science of nursing with their need for the art of nursing and their ability to interact with patients.

Database Design- Dependency Diagram Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Database Design- Dependency Diagram - Essay Example not be necessary to show all the data dependencies among the various modules because some module might be unconnected in a sequence or time and hence these are not illustrated on a dependency diagram. For example, a module might give data that cannot be used by another module until time lasts. In this scenario, the existing dependency among these modules will be left off in the dependency diagram. The dependency diagrams are also vital and useful when there exits’ complex dependency of module in a database system. Otherwise, the effort which is required to complete the dependency diagram is not warranted in complex dependencies. In this case the recommendation is the decomposition of the diagram to a less complex one such as an action diagram or a structural chart which is outlined to form a suitable dependency diagram. Action diagrams might not be used to illustrate further elaborate details such as in the shared accesses to the main storage, which is not illustrated in a dependency diagram. A CRUD diagram might also be used to illustrate dependency among some of the processes that are not shown in the dependency diagram such as the year –end time dependency among

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Chicago Bulls Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Chicago Bulls - Case Study Example The law on privacy of medical information requires extreme confidentiality of individual medical information. Individual sensitive medical information should remain with the involved party and confidential. The employment act requires employers to bargain in good faith over any terms that address a mandatory subject such as working conditions. An employer requiring an employee to undergo a DNA test is likely to use the test results as a basis for employment discrimination. As much as the employer is concerned about the wellness of the employee, it is not ethical for him or her to insist on a DNA test for an unwilling employee since it is infringement of his or her privacy. Unless such a requirement was included in the collective bargaining and agreed upon by all parties, it is not ethical. An employer may request an employee to undergo a DNA test if the employee is operating dangerous machinery or piloting a plane due to his concern to identify any genetic illness that may pose the employee and other people in danger. Such request should be made in reasonable grounds since its invasion of individual privacy. The employee’s actions may be unethical to the extent that he does not respect the employee’s privacy and employment law that is against discrimination on genetic basis. Unless there is collective bargaining among all involved parties and consent is given, it is unfair to the employee, but also a good ground to show employer’s concern on employee’s safety in the work place but not the most

Database Design- Dependency Diagram Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Database Design- Dependency Diagram - Essay Example not be necessary to show all the data dependencies among the various modules because some module might be unconnected in a sequence or time and hence these are not illustrated on a dependency diagram. For example, a module might give data that cannot be used by another module until time lasts. In this scenario, the existing dependency among these modules will be left off in the dependency diagram. The dependency diagrams are also vital and useful when there exits’ complex dependency of module in a database system. Otherwise, the effort which is required to complete the dependency diagram is not warranted in complex dependencies. In this case the recommendation is the decomposition of the diagram to a less complex one such as an action diagram or a structural chart which is outlined to form a suitable dependency diagram. Action diagrams might not be used to illustrate further elaborate details such as in the shared accesses to the main storage, which is not illustrated in a dependency diagram. A CRUD diagram might also be used to illustrate dependency among some of the processes that are not shown in the dependency diagram such as the year –end time dependency among

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Labor Relations and Collective Bargaining Essay Example for Free

Labor Relations and Collective Bargaining Essay Are 2-tier wage systems fair and justified?† Provide supporting data to justify your response. The two tier wage system is usually established by management and sometimes in agreement with a union for three main reasons. The first reason being that the employer wants to pay senior, experienced and productive worker more without increasing overall wage cost. The second reason for the implementation of this system is so that the employer can establish a merit wage scheme that compensates employees without increasing overall costs. The last reason could be that the employer wants to reduce overall cost by hiring new employees at a lower wage than incumbent workers. Unions usually agree to this type of wage system as a tactic that would allow employer to hire future employees at lower wages than senior workers, so as to reduce cost to employers and prevent future layoffs and wage cuts. Unions realize that preserving the jobs, wages and benefits of active union members is first priority. The two tier wage system may be considered fair and justified as in the recession of recent times. This system can be implemented as a strategy to resist the need to lay off workers, and reduce the wages of current workers. Unless there is a recession, the two-tier system is unfair and unjust. During non-recession economic times, employers, especially those in the private sector, may use this system as a way of minimizing cost and maximizing profits, which is unfair to workers. Each worker should be viewed as equal and should be rewarded equally. The two-tier wage system may be viewed as discriminatory, and denies employees the opportunity to thrive and get ahead. Employees who perform the same work should be paid the same the amount. This is the main reason for the labor movement and the reason why people join union. Employees who are being paid more will be constantly in fear of losing their job and be in fear of being replaced by lower-tier employees which will therefore reduce overall morale. Employees who are paid less to do the same work will be in conflict with those who are paid more and this may lead to lower productivity from these workers. In the case that there is a recession it would be beneficial to current employees to agree to a two-tier wage system, so as to preserve their jobs and benefits. The seasoned employee would not have to worry about being paid at the lower level as only new employees are affected. The system should be reversible and should be reversed, once the employer has become profitable again. It would be unfair to keep this system around if the company can afford to revert to the previous system. The United Auto Workers and GM, Ford and Chrysler in 2007, agreed to a two tier wage system, with new employees being paid the lower tier. The CEO of Ford believed that this change in the wage system was necessary to retain jobs. In 2010 under the new wage system Ford hired 1,200 new employees, rather than laying-off workers and closing plants. Two tier wages system can be as strategy for maintaining job security and benefits for current workers during difficult times but should be reversible once the company is again profitable.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Consciousness In The Snows Of Kilimanjaro

Consciousness In The Snows Of Kilimanjaro The Snows of Kilimanjaro is a short novel by well-known American novelist Ernest Hemmingway (1899-1961) by the use of stream of consciousness. The novel shapes the hero Harry, the dying writer, although he feared the advent of death, eventually he expected to rise his own soul to snow-capped peak of Kilimanjaro, so as to realize the detachment of spirit and surpass himself. The Snows of Kilimajaro contains powerful images of death. In fact, the opening paragraph of the novel tells the reader about a carcass of a leopard and Hemingways creates a trio of images that are showed throughout the novel: snow God death. The novel deals with an extreme life situation the experience closely relates to death and the dying experience . Death is exsited no matter place in the novel, it is showed in the main plot of the story and the parts describing the remembrance of the heros life. Decay, destruction and death are the main themes of this short story. Hemingway described the hero Harry with flesh and blood, longing for having real life. Although he felt very helpless and angry for the fate and the death, he still remained clear-headed mentally in the dying point of the death, reflecting himself by the way of recalling the remorse, and regretting his mistake and wasted time. In order to show this theme, Hemingway used his unique technique of stream of consciousness, much space was used to describe Harrys memories in the novelà £Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡In the passage of describing the reality that death is approaching ¼Ã…’the narrative of stream of consciousness successfully was inserted in the main form of narration interposed, flashback, multi-perspective rendering method and symbolic, sketching out Harrys life experience, succeeding in describing the activities of Harrys mind, and depicting vividly the characters personality II Embodiments of Stream of Consciousness in the Snows of Kilimanjaro Stream of consciousness is emerged on the basis of realism between the 1920s and 1930s, which breaking the traditional literary technique including character introduction, plot arrangement and comment on the psychological activities, while directly representing awareness activities of the characters, subconscious process is its main feature in particular, image and inner attitude of the characters are regarded as manifesting form. Psychological state is the center line when the hero faced the death approaching in the Snows of Kilimanjaro, radiating out the stream of consciousness is the experience of Harrys life and all the stories related to the death, the center line is regarded as the main line of the whole story vertically develops.Harrys death refracts Harrys life, personality and his attitude towards death. All these above are inserted some narrative of stream of consciousness in the form of narration interposed, flashback, multi-perspective rendering method and symbolic in the center line. Finally, all the consciousness were attributed to a kind of sense, which the sublimation of peoples spiritual realm and the rise of aircraft are integrated, the article mounts to climax , beyond the space-time and reshapes the realm of himself. Time and space crisscross The narration split into two time and spatial levels made it possible for Hemingway to incorporate wider experience. The first level is precisely defined in time and space, whereas the second level is not restricted in this respect. It is on the edge of a dream, so it belongs rather to that surreal world. The combination of both gives strong sense of deep feeling and bitter experience of this violent world. Life is seen as a constant flow of conflicting activities, a mixture of phenomena flourishing and at the same time fading and due to destruction. Hemingway breaks through the limits o f time and space in his pithy style, almost entirely revealing everything both Harrys waking and imagination. During the course of the bounces between Harrys waking and imagination, the author does not simply describe Harrys vacant current -from world-weariness to indignation, but a sort of complicated minds, and meanwhile readers discover the course of Harrys constantly shifting thought-from simplicity to degradation, and then to be awake. Through the double clues of Harrys consciousness, both the back-and-forth-springing and the secret ones as the diagram above illustrates, the entire life of the protagonist comes to be presented step by step and increasingly clear from Harrys recall and regret without chronological ordering. But with this unique employment of the technique of the back-and-forth-springing structure, Harrys stream of consciousness occurs logically and soundly at the same as the events happen around him ,even those before. Reality and Fantasy Interlacing Looking through the whole novel, all the creation of novel are completed with the aid of Harrys stream of consciousness and inner monologue except a few dialogues occurred on Harry and Helen in the awake time, and the limited scenery that Hemingway saw through the eye of hero, by the way of the mixture of reality and fantasy, so that readers can understand Harrys life and psychological state that he faced death threat and feelings of remorse. We can see the two different levels of stream of consciousness between reality and fantasy, which interweaves each other, sometimes from real life to fantasy, and sometimes from dreams to reality, as a result that the readers can straightly glimpse the inner world of characters to penetrate his feeling. In the activities of fantasy awareness, the novel shows the complex events of the past that Harry wrote after he stayed at continental place, including his childhood, the cruelty of the First World War and his skiing, looking for stimulation in gambling, his pain from anesthesia war; the journey and settle in European after the post-war, making money by writing, the personal feelings from increasingly deepening social crisis and social contradictions, his love and dissolute life and loneliness. Under the control of waking awareness, he remembered his wasteful luxury, extravagant, and hedonistic decadent life filled with fancy money and chasing women. He had destroyed his talent by not using it, by betrayals of himself and what he believed in, by drinking so much that he blunted the edge of his perceptions, by laziness, by sloth, and by snobbery, by pride and by prejudice, by hook and by crook. The fear of death for Harry from disgust, hatred was gradually changed into understanding, calm and acceptance. After all, he still loved life, he moved to Africa in order to start from scratch, but he contracted an incurable disease in the place, he was eager to find someone to save him from the death in the last time. At the moment, illusion stream of consciousness appeared, Harry saw that the aircraft droved by Compton to rescue him. He lay still and death was not there. It must have gone around another street. It went in pairs, on bicycles, and moved absolutely silently on the pavements. Because, just then, death had come and rested its head on the foot of the cot and he could smell its breath. Readers think that Harry was really sitting in the aircraft and escaped the death situation, until finally readers know that death did come, and which is the feature of description from illusion to reality of Ernest Hemingway. The master of modern narrative art, Hemingway responses to Harrys the flow of stream of consciousness, so that the stream of consciousness and inner monologue are become into the most powerful tool to express the thinking and activities of the characters. When the story reaches a climax and the energy of theme concentrates to the maximum, the two consciousnesses of reality and fantasy from Harry are integrated into one unit, spewing out the stream of consciousness in the last moment of struggling between the life and the death, which makes all the activities of sense are concentrated together, he dreamed that he flew to the top of Mount Kilimanjaro by plane, Harry understood that the place was his willing. In fact, which is the final climb of Harrys soul to the immortal realm of the spirit. Multiple points of view Hemingway chooses the multi- points of view in the fluid present of novel, so that the hero can scan and look over from several angles and reflect on their past behaviour. The frequent alternation on the person is embodied in the text description. You and he are often alternated in the same sentence in the description, making the narrative points of view frequently change. An objective description is the consciousness guide of readers, while the second-person narrative is associated with the character and the focus of attention from reader consciousness. In this way, describing characters inner activity as if Harry thinks aloud. Through the conversion of narrative point of view, the inner world of characters

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Wal-Marts Positive Influence on American Businesses Essay -- Business

Wal-Mart's Positive Influence on American Businesses   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   "Consumption is the sole end and purpose of all production; and the interest of the producer ought to be attended to only so far as it may be necessary for promoting that of the consumer..." Adam Smith. Wal-Mart is a producer who has the sole purpose of promoting consumption of the consumer. Wal-Mart and its quest for capital improvement are playing a major and vital role in the evolution of economic life. Wal-Mart brings positive change to towns in the U.S. They increase competition between retailers, stimulating the economy, and they also bring more capital and tax revenue to at town, some of which desperately need a positive change.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   'I think it's just the natural evolution of growth,' says Cynthia Lin, a spokeswoman for Wal-Mat in California. Wal-Mart's expansion and growth, like that of many other large retailers such as K-Mart, Buy Mart and Fred Meyer, is part of a bigger picture involving the evolution of the economy and the way businesses conduct themselves. Evolution, defined as the gradual process in which something changes into a different and unusually more complex or better form, is thoroughly distributed in all aspects of life. From biological, social, cultural, to economic, it can?t be denied that there are evolutionary processes taking place constantly. But it would be impossible to take a small piece of time out of our history, study it, and then conclude what is exactly evolving. The evolution processes take place simultaneously and can only be seen from the larger picture. That is why it is necessary to take a collective look at our history, from one point in time until anothe r, to effectively see the process of evolution work.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The industrial revolution began with one or two ideas for a better means of mass-production, and it became the driving force that turned the manufacturing world into what it is today. It was just 1 turning point of the evolution that took place in the 20th century (still affecting and changing lives today). Cars, houses, appliances and life?s everyday activities became more affordable and convenient for the average person. If you look at the pattern of the human race for as far back as possible, the general goal has been to increase the quality of life. Whatever it might be; health and medicine, living conditions, or food, people have... ...?t find what they needed there, so they came downtown to shop,? Jubitz said. ? I don?t think we?ve lost any businesses except for a small drugstore that was on its way out anyway because a Payless moved in at the same time as Wal-Mart.? The city of Grants Pass, Oregon had a similar situation with an arrival of a Wal-Mart in 1992. ?Today the downtown corridor consists of specialty and antique shops,? says Barton Brierley, and associate planner for Grants Pass. ?Wal-Mart helped ensure a change in the character of downtown,? he said. Laura Richardson who is a retail analyst with Pacific Crest Securities is all for a competitive change involving smaller retailers. ?It?s a big store. It carries a broad selection. There?s no depth,? Richardson said. ?That?s where the local shops can compete. They need to figure out what Wal-Mart doesn?t do, be flexible and do it.? The expansion of Wal-Mart throughout the U.S. is a positive change for towns, cities and the economy. It brings prosperity, healthy competition and it is part of the inevitable evolution that sweeps through the country on a daily basis. Wal-Mart should be greeted with open arms and with a positive outlook for the future.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Literacy in Song of Solomon, Life of Frederick Douglass, Push and Slave Narratives :: comparison compare contrast essays

Exploration of Language and Literacy in Song of Solomon, Life of Frederick Douglass, Push and Slave Narratives      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   African-Americans have been contributing to American literature for hundreds of years. From Gustavus Vassa, or Olaudah Equiano, in 1789 to Sapphire in 1996, writers have been telling their stories. The influence of minority writers and speakers on literature, literacy, and language is certainly notable.    First of all, black American literature helps "others" hear the minority voice and vicariously share the minority experience. The typical white reader cannot understand what the black race undergoes on a daily and generational basis; however, literature can bring the white reader into the minority's world by tapping into the reader's imagination and sympathies.    The main purpose of the slave narratives is to let readers share the slaves' experiences, and as a result elicit sympathies so that the reader will consider, and hopefully act upon, abolitionist ideals. In the preface to Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, William Lloyd Garrison writes about Douglass and the white northerners "whose sympathy and affection he has strongly secured by the many sufferings he has endured, ...whose minds he has enlightened on the subject of slavery, and who have been melted to tears by his pathos, or roused to virtuous indignation by his stirring eloquence against the enslavers of men" (ix). Douglass was certainly aware of his mission to agitate the public mind and win the hearts of others (xii). He achieved this purpose through his voice unwaveringly telling the pitiful story of his slave experiences. How could his audience turn a deaf ear to such eloquence and power?    Like Douglass, Sapphire shares the minority experience with the privileged population. She achieves this feat through the character Precious and her unique voice. The minority voice is distinct and unavoidable, for it is the voice that narrates the story. For example, Precious contrasts her life experiences with the dominant class's experiences: "What is a normal life? A life where you not 'shamed of your mother. Where your friends come over after school and watch TV and do homework. Where your mother is normal looking and don't hit you over the head wif iron skillet. I would wish for in my fantasy a second chance. Since my first chance go to Mama and Daddy" (Sapphire 114-115). These powerful statements from the voice of an eighteen year old African-American girl bring the white reader into the reality of the life of the minority.

Friday, October 11, 2019

The Emergence Of Professional Identity Education Essay

Despite the outgrowth of professional individuality as a separate research country in the last decennary, there is no individual definition to explicate precisely what the construct means ( Beijaard et al. , 2004 ) . There is common understanding, nevertheless, that individuality is non a fixed property of a individual, but is an on-going procedure of reading and reinterpretation of experiences within a given context. The post-modernist position of ego, to which I subscribe, is that ego is strongly related to how people organise their experiences in their life history, which could, hence, differ in clip and context, but allows persons to understand who they are and what they would wish to go. As a consequence, influences of historical, sociological, psychological and cultural factors may all impact on a leader ‘s sense of ego as a leader. If this line of statement is followed through, it would, hence, seem that ‘self ‘ is inseparable from a individual ‘s life history and, so, it is impossible to talk about ‘self ‘ when there is no contemplation.IntroductionBusher ‘s ( 2005 ) research of in-between leaders highlights how childhood experiences, parents and co-workers shaped his topics ‘ positions and values on instruction, acquisition and taking. He besides found that publicity shaped their sense of work-related individuality, their positions of themselves being bound up with the formal places they held within the school hierarchy. In this manner, professional individualities were developed through a combination of historical life and professional experience. However, it is besides of import to recognize that, when associating this to a life history attack, the narration of events comes to stand for a period of person ‘s lives, compressed into â€Å" one minute of self-narration † ( Kehily, 1995, p. 24 ) . Equally, as Kehily ( 1995 ) argues, how we see ourselves, our individuality, is capable to reformu lation in a assortment of ways harmonizing to the audience and, hence, we may hold a different version of individuality harmonizing to where, when and how we articulate it. Part of our life history can be omitted, embellished or reframed harmonizing to the feeling that we want to portray of ourselves. In other words, individuality is expressed as outward articulations as a merchandise of the societal interaction, instead than an person ‘s interior ideas. As a consequence, a Reconstruction of past events is likely to be placed within the ‘framework of present concerns ‘ ( Kehily, 1995, p. 26 ) . Malus and Wuf ( 1987, in Kehily, 1995 ) use the term â€Å" self construct of the minute † understood as a â€Å" continually active, switching array of accessible ego cognition † ( p. 306 ) . Similarly, single memory plays a big portion in determining and stating their ‘story ‘ . Memory can be selective, go forthing immense spreads and giving minutes of utmost lucidity. Identity building is, hence, an interrelatedness between past and present. Olesen ( 2001 ) , in his survey of professional individuality as acquisition procedures in life history, besides sees individuality as being a â€Å" field for an on-going subjectiveness † ( p. 3 ) . However, instead than it being subjective, harmonizing to the audience as a likely reading, it is more as a consequence of the person ‘s ability to reproduce experience in relation to existent world. It is this world which is capable to single perceptual experience, subjective orientations and significances. He argues that perceptual experience of individuality is besides interrelated to larning procedures of persons within their profession and general development. In this manner, ‘professional ‘ ind ividuality can steer and develop the person but could besides curtail the learning potency. Usher ( 1995 ) believes: â€Å" changing and switching individuality is ‘fixed ‘ and anchored by the act of composing † and that â€Å" life itself is conceived as societal text, a fictional narrative production where difference is repressed and clip suppressed in a demand for certainty † ( p. 2 ) . This position assumes that persons are about incapable of deciding the tenseness between seeing ourselves as the object and how other people influence and nowadays it. Giddens ( 1991 ) argues that how the tensenesss between external and internal positions of ego are resolved depends on single â€Å" histories and experience and societal and psychological demands † ( p. 3 ) . My place in this is that although persons may non be able to decide the tensenesss between external and internal positions, they may travel to a province of cognitive disagreement where they come to accept and recognize the difference without the demand for deciding them.Awareness of O nes SelfBusher ( 2003 ) takes a similar position reasoning that: â€Å" leaders and directors consciousness of ego is constructed through their interactions with other people, developing a altering consciousness of other people ‘s demands and besides of themselves as other people perceive them † ( p. 3 ) . This requires witting contemplation and has been encouraged through the centuries to advance a greater apprehension of the person ‘s sense of ego, the mutuality of people and with their environment ( Busher, 2003 ; Beijaard et al. , 2004 ) . I would besides reason that it besides depends to what extent persons are non merely consciously cognizant of the impact of these interactions, but besides how much they are able to larn from this and, by making so, develop their ain apprehension of people ‘s personal and societal demands, positions and outlooks, in other words, what Goleman ( 1995 ) footings as 'emotional intelligence ‘ . For any ‘people workers ‘ , understanding people ‘s actions in footings of how they construct their self-identity in peculiar contexts is critical to being able to work with them successfully. For leaders at any degree, a sound apprehension of other people is cardinal to success in their function ( Busher, 2005 ) . These soci etal interactions, as Busher ( 2003 ) , argues besides serve to develop impressions of power and that in developing individualities, peculiarly in the work context, people have to â€Å" postulate with the power relationships that operate † ( Smyth et al. , 2000, p. 149 ) . Cardinal to self-identity is besides their impression of power and how it affects their sense of bureau. The grade of authorization and command all physiques upon the individual ‘s sense of ego and is straight related to the place within which they operate and how much power they are able to ordain. Usher ( 1995 ) suggests that, possibly, this atomization of individuality is something we merely necessitate to accept and that it is inevitable â€Å" that the ego will be invented and reinvented † ( p. 186 ) . As can be seen from this treatment, professional individuality and cognition of ‘self ‘ is complex. It is made up of a assortment of elements, grounded in people ‘s single life histories, personalities and work-related experiences. The ability to reflect on their experiences and understand their ain professional individualities allows them to efficaciously wear the mantle of their several ascribed function and to hold a better apprehension of themselves and of those they lead.The Journey to LeadershipWhen analyzing life history, instruction research workers have tended to convey together shared characteristics and anchored them around nucleus subjects ( Gronn, 1999 ) . Both Kelchtermans ( 1993 ) and Parker ( 2002 ) utilize critical incidents, important people and phases as â€Å" heuristic tools in analyzing the calling narratives † ( Kelchtermans, 1993, p. 447 ) , while others ( Day and Bakioglu, 1996 ; Gronn, 1999 ; Coleman, 2002 ; Ribbins, 2003 ) have used phases and stages of leading to develop a conceptual theoretical account of leaders within a â€Å" longitudinal model † ( Gronn, 1999, p. 22 ) .Phases of LeadershipGronn ( 1999 ) termed the first phases of influence on a leader as the â€Å" Formation † phase and this encompasses the period from â€Å" babyhood to maturity † , placing household, schooling and peer mention groups as of import in supplying the â€Å" staging of a character construction † ( p. 32 ) . The 2nd phase, â€Å" Accession † ( Gronn, 1999, p. 34 ) , is the clip of â€Å" training † where persons see a scope of functions, fiting themselves with a assortment of accomplishments and get down to assemble and practise a â€Å" function repertory † ( p. 36 ) which will supply a house foundation upon which to pull for higher functions. It is in this phase, where an person ‘s strong motive to accomplish may foremost be realised, which Gronn ( 1999 ) suggests, to be effectual, needs to be accompanied by a strong sense of single ego belief and the associated feelings of one ‘s â€Å" worth and value † ( p. 36 ) which are developed in the Formation phase. The 3rd phase, that of â€Å" Incumbency † , is about the period of headship. Gronn ( 1999 ) suggests that if, at this phase, the functions that leaders take are â€Å" congruous with personal demands † so they will â€Å" be able to travel some manner to run into their demand to self actualize † ( p. 38 ) . The 4th and concluding phase is that of â€Å" Divestiture † where leaders may good lose their â€Å" psychological clasp † ( p. 39 ) , whether this be due to fortunes impacting on them and hence nonvoluntary or unplanned, or it may be more a voluntary, planned phase of the leader ‘s calling as retirement attacks. Day and Bakioglu ( 1996 ) , in their survey of caput instructors ‘ lives and callings, place a series of developmental stages and sub stages undergone by caputs which are compatible with Gronn ‘s ( 1999 ) model. Their starting point, nevertheless, is at the â€Å" Initiation † phase where caputs are already in function and, hence, could be considered as sub stages or stairss within Gronn ‘s Incumbency phase. Like Gronn ( 1999 ) , Day and Bakioglu ( 1996 ) suggest that there are â€Å" multiple tracts and flights through different stages of caput instructors ‘ lives † ( p. 206 ) . There are four phases of Day and Bakioglu ‘s ( 1996 ) theoretical account: Initiation, Development, Autonomy and Disenchantment. The Initiation phase is characterised by two cardinal procedures: acquisition on the occupation and working within the bing establishment ‘s model. They suggest that idealism, uncertainness and accommodation are three sub stages within this phase. The Initiation phase is followed by a Development stage where consolidation and extension takes topographic point. Day and Bakioglu ( 1996 ) depict this as the â€Å" most active, most satisfactory, most rewarding stage † ( p. 212 ) of the leader ‘s calling and can be compared to the feeling of â€Å" self realization † which Gronn ( 1999, p. 38 ) describes as a possible result of the Incumbency phase. The 3rd stage that Day and Bakioglu ( 1996 ) depict is that of Autonomy, which can be seen as holding both positive and negative effects upon single development and leading effectivit y. In this stage, caputs still have assurance, but their control can be under menace, due to the limitations placed upon them through authorities enterprises and establishment demands, so straight impacting their ability to command their ain sense of bureau. If this deficiency of control persists so much so that they begin to lose a sense of vision, caputs may so come in the 4th stage, that of Disenchantment. Characteristics of this phase include: â€Å" deficiency of assurance, enthusiasm and increasing personal weariness † ( Day & A ; Bakioglu, 1996, p. 224 ) . Ribbins ‘ ( 2003 ) more recent survey confirmed this wide form of calling phases, integrating both Day and Bakioglu ‘s ( 1996 ) four stages and Gronn ‘s ( 1999 ) four phases to suggest a modified model which suggests â€Å" two ideal typical tracts or paths to and through headship † ( Ribbins, 2003, p. 63 ) . Like Gronn ( 1999 ) , Ribbins ( 2003 ) suggests a formation phase where cardinal bureaus impact and determine the sort of people â€Å" that prospective caput instructors become † ( p. 64 ) . Similarly, Ribbins ( 2003 ) describes the 2nd phase of â€Å" Accession † as that clip when persons seek experience and leading functions in readying for future headship places. Ribbins ( 2003 ) notes that, in hindsight, few leaders really see this phase as one of deliberate planning in order to prosecute a class taking to headship. This can be compared to McCall ‘s ( 2000 ) â€Å" serving clip † ( p. 23 ) in order to accomplish their concluding finish. Coleman ( 2002 ) , in her survey of adult females as caput instructors, suggests that there is a â€Å" deficiency of planning and even an component of surprise in happening themselves a caput instructor † ( p. 33 ) and, therefore, the ‘grooming ‘ phase may travel unnoticed by the participant at the c lip. It is in the 3rd phase, that of Incumbency, where Ribbins ( 2003 ) suggests an option to Gronn ‘s ( 1999 ) theoretical account and physiques on Day and Bakioglu ‘s ( 1996 ) four stages. Ribbins ( 2003 ) suggests that leaders can take one of two chief paths at this phase, each of which consists of four bomber stages. The first three bomber stages are the same as Day and Bakioglu ( 1996 ) suggest: Initiation, Development and Autonomy, but with a 4th sub stage of Disenchantment or Enchantment. This is dependent on whether the leader has negative feelings ( disenchantment and loss of committedness ) or positive feelings ( assurance and competency ) at this phase. Whereas Day and Bakioglu ( 1996 ) depict a downwards gyrating procedure taking to disillusionment, or in Gronn ‘s ( 1999 ) term ‘Divestiture ‘ , Ribbins ( 2003 ) suggests that although this disenchantment so may go on, there is besides an option, that of captivation. If this latter stage occurs, the leader will stay enchanted with headship and will go on to be motivated by professional satisfaction, relationships with co-workers and keep a balance between place and school life. The concluding stage, that of ‘Moving on ‘ focal points on go forthing headship. It deals with the way that caput instructors take one time they divest themselves from office. If the caput instructor is able to stay motivated and ‘enchanted ‘ so they can look frontward to reinvention and prosecute a different involvement or business. However, if the caput instructor becomes ‘Disenchanted ‘ they face the chance of Divestiture and, to some, welcome retirement. Coleman ( 2002 ) merges her earlier theoretical account of calling phases ( Hall, 1996 ) with the Van Eck ( 1996 ) theoretical account, to bring forth her version of distinguishable calling phases of caput instructors. She suggests a readying phase where initial makings may be obtained, an establishment phase of come ining instruction and the lower degrees of direction, an promotion or development calling phase affecting deriving new experiences, farther makings and a concluding acquisition phase when headship is achieved. Taysum ( 2004 ) , on the other manus, proposes a model to place the formation of the leaders self. She argues that there are four dimensions which are â€Å" critical to understand how leaders learn † ( p. 10 ) and that it is necessary to travel beyond a additive analysis to one which explores the interplay between â€Å" the exercising of bureau and the construction that form and control that bureau † ( p. 10 ) . In this manner, she argues that leading is deconstructed to give a greater penetration as â€Å" to how leaders learn to go leaders † ( p. 11 ) . Similarly, Johnson ( 2002 ) in her survey of higher instruction leaders, did non mention to phases in leading development but to incremental phases where, over clip, leading becomes more appealing as experience and an increased academic profile rendered them eligible for more senior places. This attack I would reason, is more kindred to Parker ‘s ( 2002 ) and Kelchterman ‘s ( 1993 ) attack of non merely sing life stages but besides other facets such as critical incidents and people. Although Taysum ( 2004 ) affirms this, she besides goes beyond this attack and explores it within an rational, emotional and religious context.Critical IncidentsHarmonizing to Tripp ( 1993 ) , critical incidents in educational research are created and are non something bing independently of an perceiver expecting find. Critical incidents are produced by the manner we look at a state of affairs, an reading of the significance of an event or incident. What makes an incident ‘critical ‘ is that it is memorable and interpreted as important by what it means. Much of the research on life history, which incorporates critical incidents, reaches a similar decision. Gronn ( 1999 ) discusses â€Å" critical turning points † ( p. 28 ) in his stages of leading development. He suggests that they can be in the signifier of impermanent set dorsums which is portion of the class within calling patterned advance. Similarly, Parker ( 2002 ) in his survey of the impact of life history on leading, termed critical incidents as â€Å" specifying minutes † ( p. 25 ) . The importance of these are illustrated in his concluding comments about the caput instructors in his survey, where he suggests that such experience â€Å" helped them specify their educational doctrines and hone their accomplishments † ( p. 25 ) and so believed much of their life history influenced their leading manner. These specifying minutes were seen as â€Å" motivational drivers † ( p. 33 ) which: â€Å" created the deep-rooted sense of career that these caputs have carried with them throughout their callings † ( p. 34 ) . Goodson and Walker ( 1991 ) reached a similar decision when analyzing the life history of instructors reasoning, that critical incidents in: â€Å" instructors ‘ lives and specifically in their work which may crucially impact perceptual experience and pattern † ( p. 24 ) . Knight and Trowler ‘s ( 2001 ) reappraisal of the functions of leader-academics in higher instruction argue that they need seven types of cognition and propose some ways in which leaders might develop them. Reviewing critical incidents and important friends are some of the ways they suggest to develop and prolong the first signifier of cognition in their list, that of ‘control cognition ‘ ( p. 168 ) . Contemplation on incidents is, hence, required if some experiences are to go ‘critical incidents ‘ . The survey of life history allows this contemplation to take topographic point and the building of their ain perceptual experiences of personal experience and therefore the significance these experiences have on the respondent. Harmonizing to Angelides ( 2001 ) , it is besides an efficient technique of garnering qualitative informations because a big sum of qualitative informations can be collected covering a broad clip span.Significant PeoplesThere is general understanding within the literature that critical people are â€Å" strategically located forces † who â€Å" contribute to the manner and velocity of calling promotion † ( Gronn, 1999, p. 28 ) . Dhunpath ( 2000 ) discusses how the â€Å" interpersonal context † depicting critical people as â€Å" important others † such as parents, wise mans, co-workers and equals as: â€Å" both powerful positive and negative influences that shape an pedagogue ‘s pattern † ( p. 546 ) . Similarly, Parker ( 2002 ) besides discusses the importance of wise mans who were responsible for determining the thought of those leaders that he studied â€Å" at intensely formative minutes of their lives † and goes on to state they â€Å" were important to fixing these caputs for leading functions † ( p. 35 ) . Ribbins ( 2003 ) reiterates this importance at the formative phase and believes that they are partially responsible for act uponing and determining â€Å" the sorts of people that prospective caput instructors become † ( p. 63 ) . Coleman ( 2002 ) suggests that the significance of critical people is peculiarly of import for female leaders, as they bes ides provide function theoretical accounts for them. One of her respondents illustrates this by stating that the critical individual for her was a caput that: â€Å" encouraged me to travel for headship and likely more than any other individual in my calling † ( p. 26 ) . Kelchterman ( 1993 ) finds the usage of critical people every bit good as incidents and phases as â€Å" really utile heuristic tools in researching the calling narratives † ( p. 446 ) but besides every bit theoretical constructs. He uses both constructs to exemplify the influence they have on the professional committedness and occupation satisfaction of the instructors in his survey, both in a positive and negative manner. It besides proves utile in â€Å" retracing the ( development of ) the professional ego from the calling narratives † ( p. 448 ) . In the latter phases of their calling and, peculiarly, for more senior leading functions, Johnson ( 2002 ) found that leader-academics ‘ contact with experts in their field was of great aid in larning how to take. These people became important in determining and developing their leading capableness, peculiarly in the absence of any formal preparation or development.Professional Development and Training for LeadershipThe increasing accent on ‘managerialism ‘ in which instruction establishments are given greater liberty, are exposed to market force per unit areas and are expected to pull off uninterrupted betterment in their public presentation, places an accent on the importance of leading and the direction of instruction alteration. Equally, the scope of duties attributed to the leader-academic function demonstrates how much leaders need to larn in order to take. The volatility of the higher instruction clime besides adds a farther bed to the demand for larning, dev elopment and support for the leader-academic. Despite this, there is a surprising deficit of research or books on professional development for middle-level leader-academics. Those which do cover different leading activities ( for illustration: Bolton, 2000 ; Smith, 2002, 2005 ; Prichard, 2000 ) tend to handle leading as a generic activity, with inside informations of what leaders do instead than how they should develop in order to larn to take, although Smith ( 2007 ) does get down to turn to this in his most recent work. Possibly it is even more surprising that many universities provide small or no formal preparation ( Johnson, 2002 ; Smith, 2005 ) . A common trouble identified by many new leader-academics in Smith ‘s ( 2007 ) research is that the bulk lacked readiness for the function and had received no leading or direction preparation before and following their assignment. The preparation that did be tended to be on issues related to wellness and safety, equality and dispo sal systems instead than specifically leading development. This determination may explicate why few in the survey by Rhodes et Al. ( 2007 ) held impressions of professional development as an bureau of motive or satisfaction. Similarly, Aziz et Al. ( 2005 ) lament the deficiency of developing â€Å" despite it being an issue that has been discussed by research workers for over 30 old ages † ( p. 573 ) . This is in blunt contrast to the increasing national accent placed on leading development at school and farther instruction degree ( James and Vince, 2001 ) . For illustration, leading characteristics conspicuously in school reviews ( Office for Standards in Education: OFSTED ) , it has an of import focal point in the examination of local instruction authorization ( LEA ) monitoring and reappraisal ( Teacher Training Agency, 1998 ) ( TTA ) ; a leading college for schools has been established and a national professional making for caput instructors ( NPQH ) has been developed. F urther to these enterprises, plans have besides been designed to back up and develop caput instructors who are both new to the station and for longer functioning caput instructors. Similarly, in farther instruction, ‘The Centre for Excellence in Leadership ‘ ( CEL ) has been established since 2003 to â€Å" guarantee first leading within the acquisition and accomplishments sector † ( ) . While it is recognized that the ‘Leadership Foundation for Higher Education ‘ has been established more late to foreground the importance of leading development within higher instruction, nationally the focal point appears to be much lower key than in the school and FE sectors. Arguably, leaders in higher instruction are capable to equal alteration as that in the school and farther educational sectors and so the importance of effectual leading is as of import. However, due to the complexnesss of leading at section and module degree which have developed since the 1992 Education Reform Act, it would look that larning to take demands to be far more made-to-order and contextualised for each leader and within single modules and universities. Blackmore and Blackwell ( 2006 ) concur with this position, reasoning that a generic attack which assumes that leaders all have the same concerns and motives and that these are unchanging, is improbable to be successful. It is likely that leader ‘s clip will be dominated by undertakings that are rather different from the involvement in research or instruction that vivified their callings to day of the month ( Knight and Trowler, 2001 ) . As a effect, Knight and Trowler ( 2001 ) argue that larning to take should include acknowledgment that the leading function has the possible to: â€Å" gnaw the ego individuality that has brought calling success † ( p. 166 ) . They besides suggest that portion of larning to take will affect being more stray, to set the involvements of the establishment as high or higher than their module or squad. As a effect, it may besides affect being criticized for the determinations that they will hold to do. Keeping up with the demands and wants of the university ‘s clients and pull offing the relationships with the external universe is of all time more demanding for the leader-academic. As collegiality still operates to some extent, deriving general consent for the manner forward is more hard even though it is still seen as a: â€Å" critical portion of the in-between director ‘s occupation in higher instruction to derive the co-operation of staff † ( Hellawell and Hancock, 2001, p. 195 ) . Aziz et Al. ( 2005 ) note that, although surveies allow some sense of the duties of the leader-academic, there appears to be no consensus bing as to which dimensions are most of import or around which dimension preparation plans should be designed. To travel portion manner in rectifying this, their survey inside informations the design, execution and findings from a formal procedure of measuring the preparation demands of the leader-academic within one American university. Although they do this for merely one university, the theoretical account is utile in that it could be built upon and tailored to other universities. However, whichever theoretical account to which one subscribes, it is evident that contextual acquisition is traveling to be of import for leaders. It would be logical to presume that this â€Å" contextual acquisition † ( Hellawell and Hancock, 2001 ) can merely be achieved by being exposed to leading responsibilities earlier on in their calling ; therefore they have a better apprehension of the function of leading before they are appointed ( in the instance of the statutory university ) or have it imposed on them ( in the instance of the hired university ) . While it is comparatively straightforward to learn procedure and cognition of leading, as evidenced by the figure of generic classs ( e.g. hypertext transfer protocol: // ) and texts ( e.g. Bolton, 2000 ) available in these countries, it would look that situational cognition is as of import but more hard to learn. Knight and Trowler ( 2001 ) list the seven types of leading and direction co gnition that they believe leader-academics should derive. These include the followers: Control cognition Knowledge of people Knowledge of educational pattern Conceptual cognition ( cognizing about direction and leading constructs and research ) Procedure cognition ( procedures of leading and direction ) Situational cognition ( understanding eventualities that have made the module what it is and impact what it might be ) Tacit cognition that integrates the other six signifiers in adept pattern Adapted from Knight and Trowler ( 2001, p. 168 ) . This provides a utile model from which leaders can get down to set up what they need to larn in order to take efficaciously. However, while experience is a widely regarded method of larning and development, Johnson ( 2002 ) points out that persons must be aware that bing cognition, accomplishments and patterns are rapidly outdated and as new jobs and restraints emerge, new signifiers of expertness are needed. This type of informal acquisition is likely to be unstructured, ill-defined, unplanned and it is, hence, doubtful how much development really takes topographic point. Such experiential acquisition can non be merely an sum of clip spent but knowledge demands to be gained through the active reading of experience by the scholar ( Burgoyne and Stuart, 1991 ) . What Johnson ( 2002 ) found peculiarly worrying in her survey of leader faculty members was their inability to joint what they had learnt and how it had come approximately. Lessons learnt remained tacit cognition which could be particularly debatable if there was the demand to rethink their attacks and patterns. I would propose more good to development is ‘Integrated managerial ‘ acquisition ( Mumford, 2004 ) which still occurs within managerial activities but there are clear development aims identified and the development is planned and reviewed. This is because research indicates effectual acquisition is embodied in the ‘doing ‘ ( Sugrue, 2002 ) . Critical contemplation is an of import constituent of this procedure if the experience is to take on peculiar significance. In this manner, acquisition is existent, direct, witting and likely more significant than by the inadvertent method of informal, unplanned acquisition. However, the challenge here is to convey informal procedures of larning in to the development of leaders in maintaining with leaders preferable ways of larning. Blackmore and Blackwell ( 2006 ) take a similar position proposing leader-academics need support to larn on the occupation through mentoring, brooding appraising reappraisal and planning which allows acquisition and tacit cognition to be identified, shared and extended. Indeed, Muijs et Al. ( 2006 ) , when looking at leading development in extremely effectual farther instruction suppliers, discourse the sensed effectivity of experiential signifiers of professional development which build on the leader ‘s background and demands. They peculiarly advocate encompassing technological developments which allow cost effectivity and consideration of development chances for the person. The duality of leading acquisition in situ is that, although it becomes a merchandise of pattern and is gradual over clip to let in-depth apprehension of academic civilization and work, there remains the potency that when leader-academics take on leading functions there is still a steep initial larning curve ( Johnson 2002 ) . It would, hence, seem that larning to take comes from a scope of beginnings. Given the current volatility and alteration in higher instruction, preparation and support should be made available in the signifier of advice, chances for structured single contemplation and regular formal and informal interaction with their equal group. Those who are non as successful at larning to take may get by and trust on their positional authorization to accomplish conformity. Those who can larn from the broad spectrum of beginnings should make more than header and, alternatively, be leaders of successful modules.DrumheadIt would look that research workers are in wide understan ding that leaders, surely within the mandatory instruction sector, do travel through distinguishable life phases and that critical incidents and important people do hold an impact on how leaders learn to take. As can be seen from this treatment, while leading and development has become one of the chief subjects of national instruction direction at school degree, small has been done to back up the development of leaders within higher instruction. There are a figure of ways in which development can be implemented, both officially and informally, to help leaders in their function. However, it has besides been seen that the accomplishments and cognition for effectual leading develop over clip and through sing a assortment of functions on the path up to a leading place. Given the importance attached to leading within instruction, guaranting a supply of able center and senior leaders is critical to single educational institutional success. As a consequence, such organisations need to ship on systematic sequence planning to guarantee there is a supply of able leaders non merely to carry through those going but besides to develop leading at all degrees throughout the organisation, non needfully me rely for make fulling specific stations.